Chapter 11 Study Guide

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behaviour: 1) strength of expectation that the behaviour will lead to a goal; ... unconscious drives affecting our actions is widely supported by neuroscience and ... Autonomy: when people's actions are from their free will and choice and not from.

Chapter 11 Study Guide Motivation – the process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goaldirected behaviour; what propels one to strive to do something Instinct – when exposed to a particular stimulus, an instinct is the specific and predicted way in which the subject will behave, based on an inherited predisposition 

Humans are generally social creatures as it was needed for survival at one point. Those who were more more social survived and passed on their genes, making the majority of humans today social.

Homeostasis – state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body tries to maintain (eg. Sweating when hot cools body) 

Requires sensory mechanism for detection, response system to restore equilibrium, and a control centre to activate the response

Drive theory – theory that physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives to reduce tension (eg. Hunger) 

Not as popular of a theory as before

Incentives –environmental stimuli that pulls organism towards a goal 

No longer thought to stem from a biological need such as eating, as people have no problem with eating more than necessary

Expectancy X value theory (aka. Expectancy theory) – two factors determine goal-oriented behaviour: 1) strength of expectation that the behaviour will lead to a goal; and 2) value placed on that goal (incentive value) 

Motivation = expectancy X incentive value

Extrinsic Motivation – doing something to avoid punishment or get an external reward Intrinsic Motivation – doing something purely for enjoyment Overjustification hypothesis – people who get extrinsic rewards for something they are already intrinsically motivated to do will have their intrinsic motivation reduced (turning “play” into “work”) Psychodynamic and Humanist theories Freud: 

Freud believed all of our behaviour comes from a battle between our unconscious desires and our psychological defences to suppress said unconscious desires



Although this theory is no longer supported today, the basic idea of our conscious and unconscious drives affecting our actions is widely supported by neuroscience and cognitive psyc.

Maslow:      

Personal growth theory Deficiency needs involve physical and social survival Growth needs involve the need to develop our potential Need hierarchy shows progression of needs, with deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top Once the bottom needs have been fulfilled, we gravitate to the fulfillment of higher needs Self actualization is the act of fulfilling our potential

Relatively similar diagram to the one found in the book, except the textbook does not show the transcendence level.



This model is criticized by critics as some people forgo the bottom levels to meet other needs (anorexics rejecting food in order to fulfill the aesthetic need)

Self-determination theory:      

This modern approach to the above theory is strongly supported 3 psychological needs: competence, autonomy, and relatedness Competence: humans’ desire to master skills and challenges Autonomy: when people’s actions are from their free will and choice and not from outside interference Relatedness: forming meaningful bonds with others Each motivation compliments the other; a balance is required

Hunger and Weight regulation Metabolism – rate that the body uses energy Basal Metabolism – 2/3 energy used is for supporting the resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells

    

Short term signals make you feel hunger and make you feel satiated when you’re no longer hungry Long term signals are based on how fat you are These signals adjust appetite and metabolism Mechanisms designed to prevent one from being “running low” on energy in the first place. Thus, one would feel hungry before energy supplies are low. Set point – belief that there is an internal regulation of weight, so we normally return to our original weight whether or not we over/under eat, yet it is possible that one could settle in at a new weight

Glucose – simple sugar that is the body’s major source of immediately usable fuel   

Travels to cells to provide energy, and to liver/fat cells as nutrients for storage. Hypothalamus and liver monitor levels, and when levels are low, liver converts nutrients back into glucose Drop-rise pattern of glucose helps brain regulate hunger

Stomach/intestinal distention – satiety signals, as walls of organs stretch  

Patients with stomachs removed experience this not only from intestinal distentionalk but from chemical signals (peptides) help to terminate a meal CCK (cholecystokinin) travels to brain to decrease hunger

Appetite/weight regulating signals  

Fat cells secrete leptin to reduce appetite If we get fat and secrete more leptin, we eat less, but if we lose fat and secrete less leptin, we eat more

Brain mechanisms    

LH (lateral hypothalamus) and VMH (ventromedial hypothalamus) control hunger regulation, but are not the “hunger on/off centres” If LH is electrically stimulated, the rat will eat, but lesioning it makes it refuse to eat If the VMH is electrically stimulated, the rat will stop eating, but the opposite happens if it is lesioned Cutting nerve tracts along the path to the hypothalamus produces the same effects of LH and VMH lesions

Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) – cluster of neurons packed with receptors sites for various transmitters that stimulate/reduce appetite Neuropeptide Y – appetite stimulant 

We get hungry when losing weight because the activity of neurons that release neuropeptide Y in the PVN is inhibited when leptin reaches the hypothalamus



Eating is positively reinforced by the taste of the food, attitudes, habits, and psychological needs

Objectification theory – western culture teaching women to view their bodies as objects, leading to body shame and anxiety and eating disorders Environmental and Cultural Factors   

Food variety increases consumption Food availability is the most obvious environmental regulator of eating Classical conditioning: smell and sight of food triggers hunger, including eating with other people

Obesity   

People are obese because they eat when stressed or they react more strongly than non-obese people to food Canada & US have the high obesity rates Caused by an abundance of cheap high fat food, cultural emphasis on supersizing and getting the best value, and technology that makes us sedentary

Genes and Environment    

Heredity influences basal metabolic rate and tendency to store energy as fat or lean tissue 40-70% of variation in body mass is determined by genetic factors Over 200 genes are possibly linked to human obesity Pima Indians are genetically predisposed to obesity but their original lifestyle made them not fat. As soon as they were westernized, they got fat. Obesity is caused by the interaction between genes and the environment.

Dieting and Weight loss      

Obese people have more insulin than normal people, so that turns glucose into fat, making them fatter Obesity makes exercise difficult Dieting slows metabolism Dieting is motivated primarily by psychological and social reasons, although health reasons is also one of them Weight loss through diet is from a loss of lean body mass and fat Weight loss through exercise is from a loss of fat

Activity Anorexia  

Rats who have a running wheel will run If a rat has limited food and unlimited exercise, they get activity anorexia

Sexual Motivation   

People have sex for pleasure, teens from peer pressure, some women from so called marital duties, and reproduction Single adults who cohabit have the most sex; married adults are in the middle; singles who don’t cohabit get the least action Premarital sex trends are leveling off and possibly reversing, because of cultural emphasis on more meaningful relationships and STDs

The sexual response cycle 

 

four stage sexual response cycle o excitement – arousal building madly o plateau – respiration/heart rate/muscle tension/vasocongestion (blood pooling to certain areas) builds o orgasm – projectile semen in males, contraction of vagina in females o resolution – physiological arousal and genital size decreases in males refractory period is when males are temporarily unable to orgasm again females can orgasm a few more times before they undergo the resolution phase

Hormones   

 

hypothalamus controls sexual motivation pituitary gland regulates secretion of hormones into bloodstream, which affect how gonads secrete androgens, testosterone, and estrogen how embryos’ sexes are determined: a primitive gonad is formed that can turn into either testes or ovaries. If it’s male, testes form and release androgen, and man-parts develop. If it’s a girl, it doesn't form testes, and there’s not enough androgens, so ladyparts develop sex hormones influence sexual desire hormonal fluctuations typically have little effect on sexual arousal

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