Chapter 2 Study Guide

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Where in Ronnie's brain has the surgeon stimulated? ... Which brain structure seems to be linked to the sleep cycles and possibly to dreaming ... The degree to which a particular function is controlled by one rather than the other hemisphere is.

Chapter 2 Study Guide 1. The synaptic vesicles of the terminal buttons contain: Neurotransmitters 2. Ronnie is undergoing brain surgery. While the surgeon is probing around his cotex, Ronnie reports feeling a tingling sensation in his left hand. Where in Ronnie's brain has the surgeon stimulated? Right parietal lobe 3. A patient whose hippocampus has been completely removed from both sides of his brain will be unable to: Remember the name of a new friend 4. The all-or-none principle refers to the fact that: A neuron transmits an impulse of the same strength each time it fires. 5. The fight or flight response is a direct result of the activation of the: Sympathetic nervous system 6. When you touch a rough surface, the sensation is carried to the central nervous system by the ________ nerves. Afferent 7. In order for a substance to be classified as a neurotransmitter, it must meet certain criteria; these do not include: Causing an action potential when released into the synapse 8. The wrinkles, convolutions and fissures in the cerebral cortex: Allow more nerve cells to be packed into the brain. 9. If a patient had severe damage to the frontal lobe, you might predict he or she might also have: Impaired decision-making and problem-solving abilities. 10. Some people who are lethargic and have little motivation may suffer from a condition of low thyroid secretion known as: Hypothyroidism 11. Which brain structure seems to be linked to the sleep cycles and possibly to dreaming? The reticular activating system 12. If you hit your thumb with a hammer, which nervous system initiates the message to your brain? The somatic nervous system 13. A gunshot wound to the back of the head would cause the victim to be permanently unable to maintain motor coordination. The part of the brain that would be damaged is the: Cerebellum 14. The gland in the endocrine system, located directly below hypothalamus that produces a number of

hormones, may of which trigger other edocrine glands to release hormones, is the: Pituitary gland 15. For an action potential to occur: EPSPs must predominate to the point of bringing the cell to the threshold of depolarization. 16. When an object is placed unseen in the right hand of a split brain patient, the patient will: Be able to describe it 17. Broca's area of the brain can usually be found in the _____________ lobe of the brain. Left frontal 18. The hallucinogens are classified as such because of the changes they produce in sensory perceptions, thinking, and emotions of the individual user. Drugs in this category include: LSD and psilocybin 19. Damage to the occipital lobe may cause: Partial or complete blindness 20. Inhibitory neurotransmitters influence receiving neurons to: Not fire 21. If action potential follows the all-or-none principle, how is it possible for us to distinguish between different levels of stimulus intensity? 1) The number of neurons affected changes 2) By the frequency at which a single neuron fires 22. Many neural are tightly wrapped with a fatty, white fiber known as: Myelin 23. Most neurons have only one axon, yet it is said that a single neuron can connect to many other neurons. How does this occur? It is true there is just one axon on most neurons but it generally divides into two or more branches and this allows it to connect to multiple other neurons. 24. Researchers are especially interested in endorphins because of their: Pain reducing qualities 25. Patients with damage to Wernicke's area have sustained damage to the ________ lobe of the cortex and will have trouble __________________. Temporal; understanding speech 26. Noninvasive techniques for studying the brain have the advantage that: 1) They do not require surgery 2) They can be conducted on living organisms 27. Sally is undergoing brain surgery. While the surgeon is probing around her cortex she reports a buzzing sound in her right ear. Where in Sally's brain is the surgeon most likely to be? Left temporal lobe

28. A neuron which has a negative charge but is not transmitting an impulse is said to be: At resting potential 29. When a neuron is at rest, the membrane is said to be in a polarized state; this means that: The neuron is in a state of readiness, waiting to be activated 30. Endorphins are: Neurotransmitters that are chemically similar to opiates 31. Drugs that slow down or depress activity in the CNS are known as: Depressants 32. The degree to which a particular function is controlled by one rather than the other hemisphere is referred to in the text as: Lateralization of function 33. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a technique used in studying the brain by: Placing electrodes outside the brain and thereby monitoring brain wave activity 34. The autonomic nervous system regulates: Involuntary activities 35. The event that initiates the release of transmitter substances from the terminal buttons of the axon is the: Action potential 36. The portion of the brain most closely associated with emotional expression is the: Limbic system 37. All neurons share four common structures: the cell body, dendrites, axon, and the: Terminal buttons 38. The occipital lobe consists primarily of the: Visual cortex

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