Discipleship: An Introduc on to Systema c Theology

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and hot coals from the alter. There was only a barren rock (Founda on stone) in the Holy of Holies. • The coals were placed on the incense filling the Holy of Holies with smoke and the high priest quickly retreated to the holy place and recited a short prayer. • Appearing to the people the high priest took the basin of blood and.

Discipleship: An Introduc3on to Systema3c Theology and Apologe3cs The Doctrines of Redemp2on: The Jewish Holidays The Heights Church September 17, 2017

Fall Jewish Holidays (2017)

•  Rosh Hashanah - Wednesday, September 20, 2017 Repentance •  Yom Kippur - Friday, September 29, 2017 (year 5778) Redemp2on •  Booths - Wednesday, October 04 - 11, 2017 Rejoicing

The Old Testament Sacrificial System – Major Jewish Holidays (Day of Atonement also known as Yom Kippur) The week before Yom Kippur the High Priest was prepared to officiate. •  He dressed in the white linen robe of an ordinary priest. •  He officiated at every regular temple service. •  He was cleansed twice with the ashes of a red heifer. •  He lived in special quarters on the Temple mount. •  The Sanhedrin judicial court made up of 23 members of the Sanhedrin read him LeviTcus 16 and Numbers 29:7-11 and then required him to recite these passages to assure he knew how to conduct the service. •  The common people would feast the night before the Yom Kippur service but the High Priest was given only a light supper and kept awake all night. •  An understudy High Priest was similarly prepared.

The Old Testament Sacrificial System – Major Jewish Holidays (Day of Atonement also known as Yom Kippur) At the first rays of dawn the High Priest appeared to begin the Service. •  The High Priest bathed his enTre body five Tmes and washed his hands and feet ten Tmes. The first bath was in view of the people (a linen curtain was used to preserve modesty). •  He then dressed as the High Priest and performed the regular temple service. •  Following the service he bathed again and dressed in a white linen robe (represenTng purity) and reappeared before the people. •  The sacrificial animals for the Yom Kippur service were brought to the alter. (The High Priest had inspected these animals the day before to assure they were suitable for the sacrifice.)

The Old Testament Sacrificial System – Major Jewish Holidays (Day of Atonement also known as Yom Kippur) •  The bull was brought to the High Priest as a sin offering to atone for the sins of the High Priest and his household. •  The High Priest placed his hands on the head of the bull and three Tmes recited a prayer of confession for himself and his household so that he would be pure to perform the Yom Kippur service. •  In the prayer he spoke the Tetragrammaton (the Hebrew name of God transliterated in four leSers as YHWH or JHVH and ar2culated as Yahweh or Jehovah.) •  The Tetragrammaton was spoken ten 2mes during the service and this was the only 2me it could be spoken. Each 2me the people fell with faces to the ground and said, “Blessed be His name, the glory of His kingdom forever and ever.” (This was the only 2me of year the Jewish people could prostrate themselves.)

The Old Testament Sacrificial System – Major Jewish Holidays (Day of Atonement also known as Yom Kippur) •  The bull was led away and two (nearly) idenTcal goats were brought before the High Priest. •  The High Priest reached into an urn and with two lots; one marked “for the Lord” and one marked as the scape goat. •  It was considered to be a good omen if the lot “for the Lord” was in the High priest’s right hand. •  The High Priest placed one lot on each goat’s head and Ted a red sash on the horns of the scape goat. •  This ended the second part of the service.

The Old Testament Sacrificial System – Major Jewish Holidays (Day of Atonement also known as Yom Kippur) •  The high priest place his hands on the head of the bull and recited the same prayer of confession he had previously prayed but added the enTre priesthood to the sacrifice. •  The high priest slaughtered the bull catching its blood in a basin. •  The high priest entered the Holy of Holies with a golden ladle of incense and hot coals from the alter. There was only a barren rock (FoundaTon stone) in the Holy of Holies. •  The coals were placed on the incense filling the Holy of Holies with smoke and the high priest quickly retreated to the holy place and recited a short prayer. •  Appearing to the people the high priest took the basin of blood and entered the Holy of Holies sprinkling the blood on the FoundaTon stone – once upward and seven Tmes downward.

The Old Testament Sacrificial System – Major Jewish Holidays (Day of Atonement also known as Yom Kippur) •  The high priest again appeared before the people and took the goat designated “for the Lord” and slaughtered it. •  He entered the Holy of Holies a third Tme and sprinkled the goat’s blood on the FoundaTon stone as he had the bull’s blood. •  The high priest lea the Holy of Holies and sprinkled the blood of the bull and the goat on the curtain. •  The remaining blood was mixed together and some sprinkled on the golden alter of incense. The remainder was poured on the corner of the alter in view of the people. •  The high priest then repeated the prayer of confession on the scapegoat but this prayer was for the sins of the people. When the Tetragrammaton was spoken, the people fell on their faces and said, “Blessed be His name, the glory of His kingdom is forever and ever.” •  Another priest lead the scapegoat into the wilderness.

The Old Testament Sacrificial System – Major Jewish Holidays (Day of Atonement also known as Yom Kippur) •  The scapegoat was escorted about 12 miles from Jerusalem by ten different escorts, finally reaching a high cliff. •  The final escort divided the red sash in two placing one half of the cliff and one half on the goats horns. The goat was then pushed backwards off the cliff thus atoning for the people’s sins. •  A porTon of the red sash had been adached to the Temple doors before the scape goat was lead to the wilderness. When the scapegoat died this red sash supposedly turned white. Come now, let us reason together, says the LORD: though your sins are like scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they are red like crimson, they shall become like wool. (Isaiah 1:18) •  When the high priest learned the scapegoat was dead he entered the synagogue on the temple grounds and read the Torah Scriptures referencing the Day of Atonement.

The Old Testament Sacrificial System – Major Jewish Holidays (Day of Atonement also known as Yom Kippur) •  LeviTcus 16 details the way the Day of Atonement was to be celebrated. And Aaron shall cast lots over the two goats, one lot for the LORD and the other lot for Azazel. And Aaron shall present the goat on which the lot fell for the LORD and use it as a sin offering, but the goat on which the lot fell for Azazel shall be presented alive before the LORD to make atonement over it, that it may be sent away into the wilderness to Azazel. (Levi2cus 16:8-10) •  By the Tme of Jesus it departed significantly from LeviTcus 16:20 - 22. And when he has made an end of atoning for the Holy Place and the tent of mee2ng and the altar, he shall present the live goat. And Aaron shall lay both his hands on the head of the live goat, and confess over it all the iniqui2es of the people of Israel, and all their transgressions, all their sins. And he shall put them on the head of the goat and send it away into the wilderness by the hand of a man who is in readiness. The goat shall bear all their iniqui2es on itself to a remote area, and he shall let the goat go free in the wilderness.

The Old Testament Sacrificial System – Major Jewish Holidays (Day of Atonement also known as Yom Kippur) •  Next the high priest washed himself and put on his high priest garments and officiated at an addiTonal sacrificial service. Following this service he washed again, put on a white linen robe and entered the Holy of Holies to remove the fire-pan and ladle of incense. •  At sunset the high priest performed the regular evening service and then returned to his home for a feast for himself, the high-caste priests and aristocrats.

The Old Testament Sacrificial System – Major Jewish Holidays (Day of Atonement also known as Yom Kippur) According to the Talmud the destrucTon of the temple was not a total surprise. Four ominous events occurred approximately 40 years (the Tme of Christ’s death) before the destrucTon of the temple. 1.  The lot for the Lords goat did not come up in the high priest’s right hand. 2.  The scarlet sash on the temple door did not turn white when the scapegoat died. 3.  The westernmost light on the Temple candelabra would not light. 4.  The temple doors opened by themselves. Open your doors, O Lebanon, that the fire may devour your cedars! (Zechariah 11:1)

The Old Testament Sacrificial System – Major Jewish Holidays (Day of Atonement also known as Yom Kippur) •  At the Tme of Jesus the devote Jew would spend the month before the Day of Atonement preparing their hearts. For the actual day they would fast having eaten a large meal just before the fast began. •  The day before Yom Kippur they would bathe and wear a white robe to the service. Generous charitable giving was also common in the hope to Tp the scales in their favor. •  Devote European Jews lader added two other pracTces no longer followed : 1.  Flogging: 39 blows with a leather strap administered by a poor man who was paid by the recipient who lay on the floor wearing a heavy overcoat. 2.  SubsTtuTon: a white chicken (rooster for men and a hen for women) would be waived over the head while saying, “This is a subsTtute for me; this is in exchange for me; this is my atonement.” The chicken would been killed and given to the poor. (Except for some Orthodox Jews this has been replaced by waving a cloth containing money.)

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