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reports on the progress the child is making toward meeting the annual goals ..... What evidence will we need to show the student has met the desired level of ... A goal must have the RED, GREEN, PURPLE, and ORANGE components to be ...

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MEANINGFUL, MEASURABLE PLAAFPS & GOALS

This content of this presentation reflects general aspects of the law regarding students with disabilities as of the date of its creation. It is not intended to constitute or serve as legal advice for any particular student scenario. Districts should consult legal counsel for advice with regard to specific situations.

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Learning Targets ■ List the 3 components of a PLAAFP statement ■ List the 4 components of a measurable Annual Goal ■ Describe the connection between PLAAFP statements and Annual Goals ■ Complete a quality review of sample PLAAFP statements & Annual Goals

IDEA – 300.320 (excerpt) (a) The IEP….must include— ■ (1) A statement of the child's present levels of academic achievement and functional performance, including-- (i) How the child's disability affects the child's involvement and progress in the general education curriculum (i.e., the same curriculum as for nondisabled children); or (ii) For preschool children, as appropriate, how the disability affects the child's participation in appropriate activities; ■ (2) (i) A statement of measurable annual goals, including academic and functional goals designed to-- (A) Meet the child's needs that result from the child's disability to enable the child to be involved in and make progress in the general education curriculum; and (B) Meet each of the child's other educational needs that result from the child's disability; ■ (3) A description of— (i) How the child's progress toward meeting the annual goals described in paragraph (2) of this section will be measured; and (ii) When periodic reports on the progress the child is making toward meeting the annual goals (such as through the use of quarterly or other periodic reports, concurrent with the issuance of report cards) will be provided;

IDEA 300.324 (excerpt) ■ (b) Review and revision of IEPs. – (1) General. Each public agency must ensure that, subject to paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section, the IEP Team-■ (i) Reviews the child's IEP periodically, but not less than annually, to determine whether the annual goals for the child are being achieved; and ■ (ii) Revises the IEP, as appropriate, to address-– (A) Any lack of expected progress toward the annual goals described in Sec. 300.320(a)(2), and in the general education curriculum, if appropriate;

MARSE R 340.1721e (excerpt) ■ Individualized education program. Rule 21e. – (1) An individualized education program shall be developed in accordance with 34 CFR part 300 and shall include all of the following in writing: ■ (a) A statement of measurable annual goals, including measurable shortterm objectives. Note: The Michigan Office of Special Education has identified that Benchmarks may be written in the place of short term-objectives (STOs)

Is based on

Stands for Present Levels of Achievement and Functional Performance

Existing info and data, especially the full and individual evaluation of the student

What is a PLAAFP? Describes Abilities, Performance, Strengths, & Needs

Connects -General Curriculum Expectations -Current Skills and Knowledge -Areas of Instructional Need

Functional vs. Academic ■ Academic – how is the student learning and progressing in the general education curriculum? – Test scores – State and District Assessments – Curriculum Assessments – Standardized Achievement Test Scores ■ Functional – how is the student accessing the general education curriculum? – Participating in lessons – Turning in assignments – Navigating parts of a textbook – Moving independently around the classroom – Using an Assistive Technology device – Demonstrating self-care skills

What about our youngest students? ■ The PLAAFP outlines how the disability affects the student’s participation in the preschool environment – Using scissors – Coloring – Grouping items – Learning letters – Playing games

Where does a PLAAFP come from? • Parent & Student Input • Teacher & Service Provider Input

• Documented observations (written, systematic, & ongoing)

• Academic & Functional Skills

• Classroom performance (work samples, classroom assessments, curricular probes, writing samples, etc.)

• Behavior & Discipline

• Service Provider (logs, observations, evaluations, etc.)

• Social & Emotional Skills

• IEP Progress Monitoring Reports

• Communication Skills

• Evaluations (Initial, Reevaluation, FBAs, etc.)

• Assistive Technology Info

• Community Providers & Evaluations

• Health, physical & medical info • Learning Style (UDL)

• Assessments (Diagnostic, standardized, rating scales, criterion-referenced, curriculum-based, benchmark, screening, progress monitoring, formative, state, district, etc.)

• Transition Needs (at least by 16yro)

• Checklists (Behavior, homework, materials, etc.)

• Recreation & leisure info

• Attendance & Discipline records

Who collects the data? ■ Designated Case Manager ■ Special Education Teacher ■ General Education Teacher ■ Any other Special Education provider (SSW, OT, PT, SLP, TC, etc.) ■ MET Member ■ Parent input

How does the IEP team collect all this data? ■ Multi-observation – collected from several observations, assessments, or probes over time ■ Multi-method – based on multiple ways to collect data such as teacher made assessments (gen and special ed), district assessments, standardized assessments, etc. ■ Multi-rater – assessed by more than one person if applicable/appropriate ■ Multi-setting – assessed in special education and general education settings (RR, classroom, therapy settings, playground, etc.) ■ The more methods, observations, raters, and settings, the more complete the picture of the student.

What’s so important about PLAAFP data anyway? ■ Facilitates instructional planning ■ Facilitates communication between IEP team members ■ Helps determine if instructional strategies are working ■ Gives direction for setting future IEP goals ■ Assists in making placement and ESY decisions

PLAAFP Areas in Illuminate ■ Academic

■ Assistive Technology

■ Behavioral

■ Physical Education

■ Communication

■ Student Anticipated Needs – Secondary Transition Assessment – Medical

■ Limited English Proficiency ■ Communication/Language ■ Braille Instruction ■ Physical including accessibility

■ Extended School Year ■ Functional Performance – Daily Living Skills – Functional Skills for Academic Success

Additional Sub-Areas may be added as needed

Meaningful PLAAFPs support Meaningful Outcomes ■ Does the data support the educational disability area? ■ What are the General Education Curriculum expectations? ■ What current skills and knowledge does the student have? ■ What input does the parent have? ■ What’s the big picture? ■ Which are most important? ■ Which are critical needs? ■ What could help the parent most at home?

Data  Impact  Needs

Measurable PLAAFPs Vague Verb Phrases

Specific Verb Phrases

Received a math score of 90

Can count to 25 with 80% accuracy

Knows his letters

Can verbally identify 23/26 letters presented on a flashcard within 3 seconds

Can add

Using a calculator, solves double-digit addition problems with 75% accuracy

Expressive language is at 27

Communicates wants and needs in 2-3 word sentences a minimum of 4 times a day

Can read

Can locate 2-3 details in a reading selection at in a 1.5 grade level equivalent passage

Knows fractions

Can reduce equivalent fractions correctly without prompting in 6/10 opportunities

Can measure

Can accurately use various types of measurement tools such as rulers, weights, and volume (liters) with verbal prompting on 2/10 opportunities

Shuts down

Refuses to initiate a task within 5 minutes of being asked 6/10 times

Think: Location, Time, Duration, Intensity AND Frequency

PLAAFP Components Baseline Data • Report and describe current data about the student • Required for each area of concern identified through evaluation or by the IEP team based on current data

Impact • How does the concern get in the way of the student’s ability to make progress in general education? • Required for each area of concern in the Present Levels statement

Resulting Needs • Identify needed special education (accommodation, modification, specialize instruction, related service, program) that will allow the student to make progress • Identify whether a goal will be developed • Required for each goal, supplemental aid, service and/or program needed

PLAAFP Sections in Illuminate Impact

Baseline Data Student Strength •Identify a strength for each area of need •The strength is the starting point for instruction •What prerequisite skills has the student mastered? •How will strengths support the area(s) of need? •How will strengths help accommodate needs?

Parent Input/Concerns •Parents are members of the IEP team •Use this area to document their concerns about enhancing the education of their child

Assessment Source •Designate where you obtained the data for your PLAAFP

Demonstrated Need

Impact

•Present current baseline data in specific, objective terms •What barriers does the student have to meeting expected performance criteria? •What skills does the student need? •Give meaningful context the data •Also consider what helps the child learn and what limits or interferes with the child’s learning •Include Academic and Functional needs

•Identify how the disability affects the child’s ability to engage and make progress in the general curriculum •Identify how the disability impacts their ability to participate in ageappropriate functional activities •Identify how the disability impacts their future goals •Select the appropriate impact for each “Demonstrated Need” area •Additional impact narrative can be placed in the Demonstrated Needs statement itself

Resulting Needs IEP Areas to Address Need •Identify where in the IEP this need will be addressed •Supplemental Aids/Services, Goals/Objectives, Transition Plan, or Transportation

Example - Academic Impact

Baseline Data Student Strength •Brigance Assessment (10/16) indicates John identifies words at a 3.2 grade level, reads fluently at a 2.7 grade level, and comprehends text at a 2.3 grade levels. John reads independently at a DRA Text Level 28 (2nd grade level) with 99% accuracy and comprehension

Parent Input/Concerns •According to the parent John enjoys school most of the time and is making progress but struggles with the completion of homework assignments. She believes John needs additional time in the resource program and less time in general education setting. •According to John, he needs help in his science and math classes due to difficulties with understanding reading assignments.

Assessment Source •Brigance Assessment •Criterion-Based Assessment •Documented Observation •DRA

Demonstrated Need •CORE Reading Vocabulary Screener (10/16) indicates 40% accuracy with comprehending 5th grade written vocabulary words (intensive), 70% at 4th grade (strategic) and 90% at 3rd (Benchmark) •John reads with a comprehension level 2 years below grade level •Based on documented observation, John completes reading tasks 50% more quickly when given one worksheet at a time

Impact •These deficits impact the student’s ability to identify key points in grade level text

Resulting Needs IEP Areas to Address Need •Supplemental Aids/Services •Goals/Objectives

Example – Behavior (Preschool) Impact

Baseline Data Student Strength •John is able to participate in selfdirected play activities for up to 10 minutes at a time (Sep-Oct 2016)

Parent Input/Concerns •John’s dad notices he has a hard time sitting still at home unless it is a TV show he really likes. His dad reports he won’t sit at the table during dinner but instead likes to walk around and stand by his mom while he eats. He wonders if this is the same behavior that his teachers see at school.

Assessment Source •Documented Observation

Demonstrated Need

Impact

•During small and large group activities (Sep-Oct 2016), John requires 4-5 verbal prompts to join the group and will leave the group and sit quietly by himself within one minute of joining the group •When John is in the group setting, he does not respond to teachers or peers unless shown a visual prompt card •John’s pattern of participation in small and large group activities means he is missing important opportunities for instruction and social interaction

•This is impacting the student’s academic progress and his/her peer and adult relationships in the school setting

Resulting Needs IEP Areas to Address Need •Supplemental Aids/Services •Goals/Objectives

Example – Communication Impact

Baseline Data Student Strength

Parent Input/Concerns

•Speech intelligibility during conversation judged by an unfamiliar listener to be 70% understandable (9/30/16)

•John’s mom says John likes science and PE •She is concerned about how John will do in middle school next year and wants him to have the support he needs to do well •She wants to see him make more friends at school. She thinks he might be shy because of his difficulty speaking clearly

Assessment Source •Criterion-Referenced Assessment •Documented Observation •MLPP Phonemic Awareness Assessment •Standardized Assessment

Demonstrated Need •Test of Language Development Primary (3rd Edition): Word Discrimination=6, Phonemic Analysis=5, average subtest scaled score range=7-13. MLPP Phonemic Awareness: Blending Phonemes. 0/8, Segmenting Phonemes 0/8, Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation (2nd Education): sound substitution errors for /k/ and /g/ present in all word positions and are not developmental in nature (10% accurate) (Sept 2016) •Phonological awareness delays and articulation errors persist beyond the age when these sounds are typically developed by same-age peers •Based on documented observation, John does not volunteer to answer questions in front of his class (0/10 opportunities)

Impact •These deficits impact the student’s ability to effectively communicate in his/her educational environment

Resulting Needs IEP Areas to Address Need •Supplemental Aids/Services •Goals/Objectives

PLAAFP Checklist

(excerpt)

 PLAAFP provides an accurate, individualized picture of the student  Data sources are current  Include only educationally relevant performance data from multiple sources  Data is explained in understandable terms  Comparative data is included  Contains no judgmental language  Describes how the disability affects access to and performance in the general education curriculum  Resulting needs statement identifies at least one student need (goal, supplemental aid/service, transportation, ESY)

Questions to ask before writing Annual Goals ■ What can the student currently do? ■ What challenging, yet attainable goal can we expect the student to meet by the end of the IEP period? ■ How will we know that the student has reached this goal? ■ What evidence will we need to show the student has met the desired level of performance? ■ Will attaining this goal help close the “learning gap” for this student?

Goals focus on Academic Skills ■ PLAAFP: How is the student learning and progressing in the general education curriculum? – Test scores – State and District Assessments – Curriculum Assessments – Standardized Achievement Test Scores ■ GOAL: What does the student need to learn or do academically? – Learn to identify sight words – Learn to write more proficiently – Learn basic number facts – Solve more complicated word problems. – Learn to read Braille

Goals focus on Functional Skills ■

PLAAFP: How is the student accessing the general education curriculum? – Participating in lessons – Turning in assignments – Navigating parts of a textbook – Moving independently around the classroom – Using an Assistive Technology device – Demonstrating self-care skills



GOAL: What daily living skills does the student need to learn to access the general education curriculum? – Self-advocating by asking for help – Eating independently – Communicating with an augmentative communication device – Learning impulse control or anger management – Learning turn-taking in conversations – Using public transportation

Goals are ANNUAL ■ What might the child be expected to achieve in a year? ■ A well-written goal must describe the skill or level of performance that the child is expected to reach by a given time, at least in a year. ■ Helps ensure the same goal is not repeated year after year

Goals are STANDARDS-BASED ■ Goals must be based on the grade-level standards for the grade in which the student is enrolled ■ IEP teams are still able to individualize annual goals for the student ■ If the child is performing significantly below the grade level of enrollment, annual goals need not necessarily result in the child’s reaching grade-level within the year covered by the IEP, but the goals should be sufficiently ambitious to help close the gap.

Goals are Meaningful Choose goals that are: ■ Functional, usable, observable and measurable ■ Not likely to develop without intervention ■ Developmentally appropriate/match child’s developmental level ■ Address multiple areas and are generalizable ■ A priority to all team members, including parents ■ Enhance participation in appropriate activities ■ Realistic and achievable

Ask yourself: “What will the ability to achieve this goal do for the child?”

Goals are Measurable ■ Goals are based on what can be seen, heard, or otherwise observed ■ Measurable goals help us know when the student has reached the goal ■ Make sure we know where the student is starting from (e.g., the Baseline Data) so we know where the student is going

MDE Goal Writing Guidance ■ A goal must have the RED, GREEN, PURPLE, and ORANGE components to be measurable ■ The BLUE component is helpful to demonstrate the connection to the postsecondary goal but is not required by law. It is used in Transition IEPs only (students ages 14-16 and older).

MDE Model

To support (his/her) postsecondary goal of _____

(Student) will

(skill or behavior As measured by that can be (measurement counted or or assessment observed) strategy)

(level of attainment to By (timeframe or show mastery date) such as accuracy or rate)

MDE Guidance in Illuminate MDE Model

In Illuminate: Edit the Modified Goal Description

To support (his/her) postsecondary goal of _____

(Student) will

(skill or behavior As measured by that can be (measurement counted or or assessment observed) strategy)

Modified Goal Description: 1st Text Box

(level of attainment to By (timeframe or show mastery date) such as accuracy or rate)

Performance Criteria: 2nd text box

Length of time: 3rd text box

■ The RED, GREEN, PURPLE, and ORANGE components MUST be in the Modified Goal Description even if they are also in the Short Term Objectives!

MDE in Illuminate MDE Model

To support (his/her) postsecondary goal of _____

(Student) will

(skill or behavior As measured by that can be (measurement counted or or assessment observed) strategy)

(level of attainment to By (timeframe or show mastery date) such as accuracy or rate)

Example

To support her postsecondary goal of working as a teacher, Suzanne will identify the problem and solution of an informational text and make 3 inferences about the theme or message of each chapter

Example

To support his postsecondary goals of living with his parents and participating in supported volunteering, as measured by documented Josh will increase his communication skills by indicating by October 2017. teacher observations in 60% of trials his activity preference to others via a 4-compartment switch

as measured by informal reading assessment 4 out of 5 times

by October 2017.

■ Note: The Modified Goal Description will print as a complete sentence on the PDF

More Goal Examples To support (his/her) postsecondary goal of _____

(Student) will

(skill or behavior that can be counted or observed)

As measured by (measurement or assessment strategy)

(level of attainment to By (timeframe or show mastery date) such as accuracy or rate)

During PE, Mary will throw/propel a bean bag in a forward direction

a distance of 3 feet or more as measured by documented observation

by October 2017.

Lance will improve communication skills by initiating and maintaining an on-topic, interactive verbal communication with a classmate that includes least 2 turn-taking sequences

As measured by documented observation in 4/5 opportunities

by October 2017.

When given a in-class assignment, Cameron will increase her organizational skills by locating relevant materials within the classroom environment (e.g., folder, textbook, pencils)

as measured by student checklist with 100% accuracy

by October 2017.

Mickey will follow a 5-step cafeteria routine without prompting

on at least 3 steps as measured by teacher made checklist

By October 2017

During transitions between locations in the school building, Doug will walk independently from one location to another without disruption (running 6 feet ahead or more of staff, sitting on the hallway floor, etc.)

As measured by behavior log in 60% By October 2017 of opportunities

Use “Doing” Words ■ Write

■ Sort

■ Reach

■ Zip

■ Draw

■ Sing

■ Locate

■ Select

■ List

■ Underline

■ Count

■ Remain

■ Perform

■ State

■ Initiate

■ Classify

■ Circle

■ Smile

■ Group

■ Cut

■ Touch

■ Add

■ Name

■ Jump

■ Walk

■ Paint

■ Copy

■ Place

■ Sign

■ Type

■ Put on

■ Grasp

■ Pick Up

■ Pour

■ Complete

■ Remove

■ Answer

■ Give

Avoid Slippery “Banana Peel” Words (Or give clarifying context) ■ Know

■ Tolerate

■ Understand

■ Manipulate

■ Enjoy

■ Participate

■ Appreciate

■ Use

■ Recognize

■ Increase

■ Communicate

■ Realize

■ Research

■ Demonstrate

■ Value

■ Believe

■ Solve

■ Comprehend

■ Apply

■ Try

Short Term Objectives must be measurable, too ■ They can be Short Term Objectives – At least 2 distinct but relevant skills that will support the Annual Goal ■ Or they can be Benchmarks – One measurable skill in the Annual Goal that has at least 2 progress targets or benchmarks (e.g. 30% and 60% mastery with an Annual Goal of 90% mastery)

(Student) will

(skill or behavior As measured by that can be (measurement counted or or assessment observed) strategy)

(level of attainment to By (timeframe or show mastery date) such as accuracy or rate)

Goals are monitored for progress ■ Progress Reports matter! They help us know: – How well does the child needs to perform to achieve the Annual Goal – If the student is still on track – If the student is ready for a new challenge – If the student needs more time with a goal or another approach – If the student continues to require special education and/or related services – If the Annual Goal or another part of the IEP needs to be revised

Data  Impact  Needs  Goal  Outcome

Ongoing Progress Monitoring gathers data for the PLAAFP Outcome

Data

Goal

Impact

Needs

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