New Zealand Life Tables - Statistics New Zealand

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New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

New Zealand Life Tables 2000–2002

i

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Published in July 2004 by Statistics New Zealand Te Tari Tatau Wellington, New Zealand Catalogue Number 10.005 ISSN 0111-0225 ii

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Preface This report contains the latest life tables for the Mäori, non-Mäori and total New Zealand populations. These complete life tables are based on the mortality experience for the three-year period 2000–2002 and provide standard measures for monitoring changes in mortality and survivorship patterns and the progress in prolonging life. The report includes several other topics of interest. These include analysis of causes of death, summary information on the longevity and mortality experience of different subnational areas of New Zealand, and explanation of the methods of derivation of these life tables. The report also consolidates earlier life table results. Users should note three important aspects. First, the introduction of new birth and death registration forms in 1995 caused a significant discontinuity in historical ethnic birth and death statistics. However, the new forms have considerably improved the general quality of ethnic-specific data. Second, comparisons of Mäori and non-Mäori life tables over time and with each other should be interpreted with caution because of changes in ethnic concept and data sources. Before 1995–1997, Mäori life expectancy is likely to be over-estimated and non-Mäori life expectancy is likely to be under-estimated because of under-registration of Mäori deaths relative to the Mäori population. Third, all 1995–1997 life tables published in 1998 have been revised to incorporate updated population estimates and improved methods of estimating death rates at the oldest ages. For the Mäori and non-Mäori life tables, the revision also includes adjustments for underreporting of Mäori deaths (relative to the Mäori population). I would like to thank Gillian Smeith, Nick Thomson and Rino Adair for the work they have done in the preparation of this report, under the direction of Kim Dunstan who had overall editorial responsibility.

Brian Pink Government Statistician

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New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

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New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Acknowledgement This report was prepared by the Demography Division and published by the Information and Publishing Services Division of Statistics New Zealand.

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New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Standards Percentage changes

Source

Percentage movements are, in a number of cases, calculated using data of greater precision than published. This could result in slight variations.

All data is compiled by Statistics New Zealand, except where otherwise stated.

Symbols

Rounding procedures

The interpretation of the symbols used throughout this report is as follows:

On occasion, figures are rounded to the nearest thousand or some other convenient unit. This may result in a total disagreeing slightly with the total of the individual items as shown in tables. Where figures are rounded the unit is in general expressed in words below the table headings, but where space does not allow this the unit may be shown as (000) for thousands, etc.

C E P R S -.. ...

Changes of base Where consecutive figures have been compiled on different bases and are not strictly comparable, a footnote is added indicating the nature of the difference.

vi

confidential early estimate provisional revised suppressed nil or zero figure(s) not available figure too small to be expressed not applicable

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Contents Preface ...............................................................................................................................................

iii

Acknowledgement ...............................................................................................................................

v

Standards ...........................................................................................................................................

vi

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................

1

Parts 1. Background ....................................................................................................................................

3

Revised 1995–1997 life tables ..................................................................................................

3

Ethnic life tables ........................................................................................................................

3

Ethnic concept .....................................................................................................................

3

Changes to census forms ....................................................................................................

3

Changes to population measures ........................................................................................

4

Changes to birth and death registration forms .....................................................................

4

Availability and comparability of ethnic life tables .................................................................

6

Subnational life tables ...............................................................................................................

9

2. National trends in longevity and mortality .......................................................................................

11

Age distribution of deaths ..........................................................................................................

11

New Zealand life expectancy ....................................................................................................

12

Mäori and non-Mäori life expectancy ...................................................................................

12

Mäori/non-Mäori differentials in life expectancy ...................................................................

14

Male-female difference in life expectancy ............................................................................

14

International comparison of life expectancy ..............................................................................

15

Age contribution to longevity differences ...................................................................................

16

Age-specific death rates ............................................................................................................

18

Total population ....................................................................................................................

18

Change between 1950–1952 and 2000–2002 .....................................................................

18

Mäori and non-Mäori ............................................................................................................

21

Chance of survival .....................................................................................................................

21

Infant mortality ...........................................................................................................................

22

Causes of death ........................................................................................................................

23

3. National methodology ....................................................................................................................

27

Data ..........................................................................................................................................

27

Deaths numerator .....................................................................................................................

27

Population denominator (exposed-to-risk population) ...............................................................

27

Derived rates .............................................................................................................................

28

Life table notation ......................................................................................................................

29

Age 0 years ...............................................................................................................................

29

Age 1 year and over ..................................................................................................................

31

Supplementary functions for five-year age groups ....................................................................

32

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New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Parts (continued) 4. Subnational trends in longevity and mortality .................................................................................

33

Regional life expectancy at birth ...............................................................................................

33

Regional life expectancy at age 65 years ..................................................................................

38

Territorial authority life expectancy at birth ................................................................................

40

Standardised death rates ..........................................................................................................

40

Possible causal factors .............................................................................................................

42

5. Subnational methodology ...............................................................................................................

45

Data ..........................................................................................................................................

45

Deaths numerator .....................................................................................................................

45

Population denominator (exposed-to-risk population) ...............................................................

45

Derived rates .............................................................................................................................

45

Life table notation ......................................................................................................................

46

Age 0 years ...............................................................................................................................

47

Age 1–4 years ...........................................................................................................................

47

Age 5–84 years .........................................................................................................................

48

Age 85 years and over ..............................................................................................................

48

Brass’ Logit System ...................................................................................................................

49

Abridged life tables compared with complete life tables ............................................................

49

Standardised death rates ..........................................................................................................

50

Glossary

...........................................................................................................................................

51

References ..........................................................................................................................................

55

Appendices: Additional tables .............................................................................................................

56

List of tables Part 1 1.01 Summary of different ethnic concepts, deaths measures and population measures, in New Zealand complete life tables, 1950–2002 ......................................................................

6

1.02 Summary of different deaths measures and population measures, in subnational abridged life tables, 1990–2002 ................................................................................................

9

Part 2 2.01 Life expectancy at selected ages, total, Mäori and non-Mäori populations, 1950–2002 ...........

13

2.02 Difference between Mäori and non-Mäori life expectancy, at selected ages, 1950–2002 .........

14

2.03 Difference between male and female life expectancy, at selected ages, total population, 1950–2002 ................................................................................................................................

14

2.04 International comparison of life expectancy at birth ..................................................................

15

2.05 Chance of survival from birth to selected ages, total, Mäori and non-Mäori populations, 2000–2002 ................................................................................................................................

22

2.06 Infant mortality rate, total population, 1950–2002 .....................................................................

22

2.07 Mortality rates by cause of death, total population, 1980–2000 ................................................

25

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New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

List of tables (continued) Part 4 4.01 Life expectancy at birth, regional councils and selected territorial authorities, 1990–1992, 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 ..................................................................................

36

4.02 Life expectancy at age 65 years, regional councils and selected territorial authorities, 1990–1992, 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 ..................................................................................

39

4.03 Standardised death rates, regional councils and territorial authorities, 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 ................................................................................................................................

41

Part 5 5.01 New Zealand life expectancy at birth, abridged and complete life tables ..................................

49

List of figures Part 1 1.01 Selected Mäori population measures, 1951–2001 ....................................................................

4

1.02 Deaths by ethnicity of deceased, 1991–2003 ...........................................................................

5

1.03 Live births by ethnicity of child, 1991–2003...............................................................................

5

Part 2 2.01 Cumulative deaths by age and sex, total population, 1950–1952 and 2000–2002 ...................

11

2.02 Life expectancy at birth, 1901–2002 .........................................................................................

12

2.03 Five-yearly change in life expectancy at birth, total population, 1950–2002 .............................

12

2.04 Age contribution to longevity gain, total population, 1995–1997 to 2000–2002 ........................

16

2.05 Age contribution to longevity gain, total population, 1975–1977 to 2000–2002 ........................

16

2.06 Age contribution to longevity gain, Mäori population, 1995–1997 to 2000–2002 ......................

17

2.07 Age contribution to Mäori/non-Mäori longevity difference, 2000–2002 .....................................

17

2.08 Age-specific death rates, total population, 2000–2002 .............................................................

18

2.09 Male age-specific death rates, total population, 1950–1952, 1975–1977 and 2000–2002 .......

18

2.10 Female age-specific death rates, total population, 1950–1952, 1975–1977 and 2000–2002 ...

19

2.11 Death rates at selected ages, total population, 1950–2002 ......................................................

19

2.12 Decrease in age-specific death rates, total population, 1950–1952 to 1975–1977 ...................

20

2.13 Decrease in age-specific death rates, total population, 1975–1977 to 2000–2002 ...................

20

2.14 Age-specific death rates, Mäori and non-Mäori populations, 2000–2002 .................................

21

2.15 Chance of survival from birth to selected ages, 2000–2002 .....................................................

21

2.16 Deaths by cause, total population, 2000 ...................................................................................

23

Part 3 3.01 Comparison of actual and smoothed mortality rates, male, 2000–2002 ...................................

31

Part 4 4.01 Male life expectancy at birth, regional councils, 2000–2002 .....................................................

34

4.02 Female life expectancy at birth, regional councils, 2000–2002 .................................................

35

4.03 Male and female life expectancy at birth, regional councils, 1990–1992 ..................................

37

4.04 Male and female life expectancy at birth, regional councils, 1995–1997 ..................................

37

4.05 Male and female life expectancy at birth, regional councils, 2000–2002 ..................................

37

4.06 Life expectancy at birth, selected territorial authorities, 2000–2002 ..........................................

40

4.07 Male life expectancy v smoking propensity ...............................................................................

43

4.08 Female life expectancy v smoking propensity ...........................................................................

43

Part 5 5.01 Observed and smoothed male death rates, Franklin District, 2000–2002 ................................

49

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New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

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New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Introduction This report consists of five parts. Part 1 consists of background information on life tables, including discussion of changes in the measurement of ethnic deaths and population. Part 2 presents the main results on longevity and mortality trends at the national level for the Mäori, non-Mäori and total New Zealand populations. Part 3 outlines the methodology used for constructing the latest complete life tables. Part 4 presents a summary of longevity and mortality trends for the total population of subnational areas (regional councils and territorial authorities). Part 5 outlines the methodology used for constructing the latest abridged life tables and standardised death rates of subnational areas. Complete life tables for 2000–2002 for the Mäori, non-Mäori and total populations are contained in Appendix 1, while the corresponding 1995–1997 complete life tables (revised) are contained in Appendix 2. Supplementary five-year age group life table measures for 1995–1997 (revised) and 2000–2002 are provided in Appendix 3. Life tables are one of the basic demographic tools for analysing mortality. They are a tabular numerical representation of mortality and survivorship of a cohort at each age of life. Most life tables are based on current mortality rates, and such tables are called period, current or cross-sectional life tables. Every five years, Statistics New Zealand produces complete period life tables using average mortality rates for three successive years centred on a census year. A complete life table presents functions for each single-year of age. In every non-census year, Statistics New Zealand produces an abridged period life table using mortality rates for three successive years centred on a non-census year. This abridged life table presents functions for five-year age groups rather than for single years of age, although ages 0 and 1–4 years are identified separately. Period life tables assume that as a cohort passes through life, it experiences the age-specific mortality rates of a given period. Although these tables are usually based on death rates from a real population during a particular period of time, they are a hypothetical model of mortality, as they do not describe the real mortality which characterises a cohort as it ages. Cohort (or generation) life tables are based on the actual mortality experience of a particular cohort (eg all people born in the year 1900). These tables require data over many years, theoretically until the death of the last survivor. All life tables presented in this report are period life tables. They show the mortality experience of a hypothetical group of newborn babies, assuming that they experience the observed mortality rates of the given period throughout their lives. The derived life expectancies give an indication of the average longevity of the population but do not necessarily reflect the longevity of an individual.

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New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

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New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Part 1:

Background This part discusses important data issues which affect the historical comparability of life tables. These include the revision of 1995–1997 life tables, as well as changes in the measurement of ethnicity and the population since 1950–1952 (the first period for which Mäori and total New Zealand life tables were prepared). The measurement of ethnic mortality was particularly affected by the introduction of new death (and birth) registration forms in 1995. Issues with the preparation of life tables for subnational areas are also covered.

Revised 1995–1997 life tables The 1995–1997 complete life tables for the total New Zealand, Mäori and non-Mäori populations published in July 1998 have been revised. For all populations, the revision incorporates updated population estimates (at 30 June 1996) and a revised method of estimating death rates at the oldest ages. For the Mäori life tables, smooth adjustment factors presented in Ajwani (2003) have been applied to Mäori deaths by age to allow for under-reporting of Mäori deaths (relative to the Mäori population). For the non-Mäori life tables, corresponding adjustments have been applied to nonMäori deaths by age. These adjustment factors affect Mäori life expectancy at birth by about 0.7 years and non-Mäori life expectancy at birth by about 0.1 years. The 1995–1997 abridged life tables for regional councils published in September 1998 have also been revised. For all regions, the revision incorporates updated population estimates (at 30 June 1996) and an alternative method of smoothing death rates across age (Brass’ Logit System). All 1995–1997 data in this report are from the revised life tables.

Ethnic life tables Ethnic concept The ethnic concept used in the 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 life tables is the ethnic group or groups that people identify with, or feel they belong to. Ethnicity is self-perceived and people can belong to more than one ethnic group. For example, people may identify with the Mäori ethnicity even though they may not be descended from a Mäori ancestor. Conversely, people may choose to not identify with the Mäori ethnicity even though they are descended from a Mäori ancestor. Ethnicity does not equate to a birthplace description. In the Census of Population and Dwellings, ethnicity is identified by the person completing the census form. In the case of births and deaths, ethnicity is identified by the person completing the registration form. For births this is usually the parent(s), while for deaths this is most likely to be the funeral director (on the advice of a family member). Different ethnic concepts were used for Mäori and non-Mäori life tables before 1995–1997. These are discussed further in the following sections.

Changes to census forms The ethnicity question used in the five-yearly Census of Population and Dwellings has had frequent changes in the wording of the instructions and tick-box categories. For an extensive list of historical census questionnaires, refer to Statistics New Zealand (2001). Before 1986, respondents were asked to identify their race or ‘degree of blood’ in terms of ethnic fractions. From 1986, respondents were asked to identify their ethnic affiliation via tick-box and/or write-in options, but without indicating the relative strength of affiliation. Moreover, the wording of recent census ethnic questions has varied: ●

1986: What is your ethnic origin? Tick the box or boxes which apply to you.



1991: Which ethnic group do you belong to? Tick the box or boxes which apply to you.



1996: Tick as many circles as you need to show which ethnic group(s) you belong to.



2001: Which ethnic group do you belong to? Mark the space or spaces which apply to you.

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New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Changes to population measures The 1996 Census was the first to be followed by a post-enumeration survey which provided estimates of census coverage (net census undercount). This was a catalyst for Statistics New Zealand adopting the resident population concept for population estimates, projections and demographic indices. The ‘estimated resident population’ is the best available measure of the population that usually lives in an area. It is based on the census usually resident population count with adjustments for non-response to the census ethnicity question, net census undercount and residents temporarily overseas on census night. The estimated resident population is not directly comparable with census counts because of these adjustments. Figure 1.01

Selected Mäori Population Measures 1951–2001 600

(000)

500

400

census night population count of any degree of Mäori blood census usually resident population count of Mäori ethnicity estimated resident population of Mäori ethnicity census night population count of '½ or more' Mäori blood census usually resident population count of single response Mäori ethnicity census usually resident population count of unspecified ethnicity

300

200

100

0 1951

1956

1961

1966

1971

1976

1981

1986

1991

1996

2001

Note: Census counts at census date and population estimates at 30 June.

Changes to birth and death registration forms In September 1995, new birth and death registration forms were introduced carrying a revised question on ethnicity. Previously the ethnic question on the death registration form asked for the degree of Mäori or “Pacific Island” blood, if any, of the deceased person’s parents. The new ethnic question, which is the same in principle to the ethnic question in the 1996 Census, instructs the respondent to “tick as many circles as needed to show which ethnic group(s) deceased belonged to”. This has resulted in a number of changes: ●









the ethnic concept is now self-identified ethnicity (previously Mäori and Pacific respondents were classified by their ‘degree of blood’) ethnic vital statistics are now available for a wider range of ethnic groups (previously information was sought only for Mäori and Pacific groups) ethnic data is now directly available for newborn babies and the deceased (in both cases this was previously derived from their parent’s ethnicity) multiple response to the ethnicity question is now possible (previously the degree of Mäori or Pacific blood, but not both, could be identified) non-response to the ethnicity question can now be quantified.

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New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

The introduction of the new registration forms has resulted in a significant increase in the number of deaths (figure 1.02) and births (figure 1.03) of each ethnicity. Figure 1.02

Deaths by Ethnicity of Deceased 1991–2003

3.0

Registrations (000) Mäori ethnicity

2.5 Single response Mäori ethnicity 2.0

Any degree of Mäori blood

1.5 '½ or more' Mäori blood 1.0

Deceased's ethnicity unspecified

'Full' Mäori blood

0.5

Pacific ethnicity

Any degree of Pacific blood

0.0 1991

Asian ethnicity

'Full' Pacific blood 1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Notes: 1. December year data, except for 1995 which is September year. 2. Data before 1996 are deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in New Zealand and people visiting from overseas. 3. Data from 1996 are deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in New Zealand. 4. From 1996, deaths with more than one ethnicity are included in each ethnic group. 5. ‘Single response Mäori ethnicity’ refers to deaths with Mäori ethnicity only.

Figure 1.03

Live Births by Ethnicity of Child 1991–2003

18

Registrations (000) Mäori ethnicity

16

Any degree of Mäori blood

14 12 10 Pacific ethnicity 8

'½ or more' Mäori blood

Single response Mäori ethnicity

6 Any degree of Pacific blood 4

Asian ethnicity

'Full' Pacific blood

2 0 1991

Child's ethnicity unspecified

'Full' Mäori blood 1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Notes: 1. December year data, except for 1995 which is September year. 2. Data before 1996 are births registered in New Zealand to mothers resident in New Zealand and mothers visiting from overseas. 3. Data from 1996 are births registered in New Zealand to mothers resident in New Zealand.From 1996, births with more than one ethnicity are included in each ethnic group. 4. ‘Single response Mäori ethnicity’ refers to births with Mäori ethnicity only. 5. Data for 1998 are lower than expected because of a small change in the rate at which births were registered during 1998.

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New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Availability and comparability of ethnic life tables Statistics New Zealand has produced life tables for the Mäori and non-Mäori populations in addition to life tables for the total New Zealand population. Following the introduction of new birth and death registration forms in September 1995, Statistics New Zealand has also evaluated the production of life tables for other ethnic groups such as Asian and Pacific. However, life tables for other ethnicities have not been produced because of the small number of death registrations and uncertainty associated with ethnic identification and measurement. For example, a person’s ethnic identity can change over time and between different data collections, depending on the respondent and the context of collection. Ethnic mortality measures should therefore be interpreted with due caution. Historical Mäori and non-Mäori life tables should be interpreted with caution because of changes in ethnic concept and data sources. There is evidence that Mäori deaths were significantly under-reported, and hence non-Mäori deaths were over-reported, before the new vitals registration forms were introduced in 1995. Following the redesign of the forms, death registrations and population data are broadly comparable for ethnic groups. The 1995–1997 Mäori and non-Mäori life tables published in July 1998 were the first to be constructed using data derived from the new registration forms. However, because numerator-denominator ethnic differences are significant before 1995–1997, ethnic mortality measures from 1995–1997 are not comparable with those from earlier years. For alternative estimates of life expectancy of different ethnic populations before 1995–1997, see Ajwani (2003). Note, however, that these estimates may not be directly comparable to mortality measures produced by Statistics New Zealand because of differences in both the deaths numerator and population denominator. Table 1.01

Summary of Different Ethnic Concepts, Deaths Measures and Population Measures In New Zealand complete life tables 1950–2002 Period

Ethnic concept

Deaths measure

Population measure

2000–2002

Mäori life tables based on deaths of people with Mäori ethnicity and the population of Mäori ethnicity. NonMäori life tables based on deaths and population not included in the Mäori life tables. Both the Mäori and non-Mäori life tables make an allowance for deaths and population with no ethnic response.

Deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in New Zealand.

Estimated resident population at 30 June 2001 (based on census usually resident population count at 6 March 2001).

1995–1997 revised revised

Mäori life tables based on deaths of people with Mäori ethnicity and the population of Mäori ethnicity. NonMäori life tables based on deaths and population not included in the Mäori life tables. Both the Mäori and non-Mäori life tables make an allowance for deaths and population with no ethnic response. An adjustment made to Mäori/nonMäori deaths for undercount of Mäori deaths using the adjustment ratios presented in Ajwani (2003).

Deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in New Zealand.

Estimated resident population at 30 June 1996 revised (based on census usually resident population count at 5 March 1996).

1995–1997

Mäori life tables based on deaths of people with Mäori ethnicity and the population of Mäori ethnicity. NonMäori life tables based on deaths and population not included in the Mäori life tables, including deaths and population with no ethnic response.

Deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in New Zealand.

Estimated resident population at 30 June 1996 (based on census usually resident population count at 5 March 1996).

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New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Period

Ethnic concept

Deaths measure

Population measure

1990–1992

Mäori life tables based on deaths of people with any degree of Mäori blood and the population of Mäori ethnicity. Non-Mäori life tables based on deaths and population not included in the Mäori life tables, including deaths with no indication of the degree of Mäori blood and population with no ethnic response.

Deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in New Zealand and people visiting from overseas.

Census usually resident population count at 5 March 1991.

1985–1987

Mäori life tables based on deaths of people with 'half or more Mäori blood' and the population of 'single ethnic response' Mäori. Non-Mäori life tables based on deaths and population not included in the Mäori life tables, including deaths with no indication of the degree of Mäori blood and including population with no ethnic response.

Deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in New Zealand and people visiting from overseas.

Estimated de facto population mean year ended 31 December 1985–1987 (based on census night population count at 4 March 1986).

1980–1982 revised revised

Mäori life tables based on deaths of people with 'half or more Mäori blood' and the population of 'half or more Mäori blood'. Non-Mäori life tables based on deaths and population not included in the Mäori life tables, including deaths and population with no indication of the degree of Mäori blood. No adjustment made to Mäori/nonMäori deaths for undercount of Mäori deaths.

Deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in New Zealand and people visiting from overseas.

Estimated de facto population mean year ended 31 December 1980–1982 (based on census night population count at 24 March 1981).

1980–1982

Mäori life tables based on deaths of people with any degree of Mäori blood and the population of 'half or more Mäori blood'. Deaths with any degree of Mäori blood were used as a proxy adjustment for the undercount of Mäori 'half or more' deaths. Non-Mäori life tables based on deaths and population not included in the Mäori life tables, including deaths and population with no indication of the degree of Mäori blood.

Deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in New Zealand and people visiting from overseas.

Estimated de facto population mean year ended 31 December 1980–1982 (based on census night population count at 24 March 1981).

1975–1977

Mäori life tables based on deaths of people with 'half or more Mäori blood' and the population of 'half or more Mäori blood'. Non-Mäori life tables based on deaths and population not included in the Mäori life tables, including deaths and population with no indication of the degree of Mäori blood.

Deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in New Zealand and people visiting from overseas.

Estimated de facto population mean year ended 31 December 1975–1977 (based on census night population count at 23 March 1976).

7

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Period

Ethnic concept

Deaths measure

Population measure

1970–1972

Mäori life tables based on deaths of people with 'half or more Mäori blood' and the population of 'half or more Mäori blood'. Non-Mäori life tables based on deaths and population not included in the Mäori life tables, including deaths and population with no indication of the degree of Mäori blood.

Deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in New Zealand and people visiting from overseas.

Estimated de facto population mean year ended 31 December 1970–1972 (based on census night population count at 23 March 1971).

1965–1967

Mäori life tables based on deaths of people with 'half or more Mäori blood' and the population of 'half or more Mäori blood'. Non-Mäori life tables based on deaths and population not included in the Mäori life tables, including deaths and population with no indication of the degree of Mäori blood.

Deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in New Zealand and people visiting from overseas.

Estimated de facto population mean year ended 31 December 1965–1967 (based on census night population count at 22 March 1966).

1960–1962

Mäori life tables based on deaths of people with 'half or more Mäori blood provided that the remaining blood is European or Polynesian' and the population of 'half or more Mäori blood provided that the remaining blood is European or Polynesian'. Non-Mäori life tables based on deaths and population not included in the Mäori life tables, including deaths and population with no indication of the degree of Mäori blood.

Deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in New Zealand and people visiting from overseas.

Estimated de facto population mean year ended 31 December 1960–1962 (based on census night population count at 18 April 1961).

1955–1957

Mäori life tables based on deaths of people with 'half or more Mäori blood provided that the remaining blood is European or Polynesian' and the population of 'half or more Mäori blood provided that the remaining blood is European or Polynesian'. Non-Mäori life tables based on deaths and population not included in the Mäori life tables, including deaths and population with no indication of the degree of Mäori blood.

Deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in New Zealand and people visiting from overseas.

Estimated de facto population at 30 June 1956 (based on census night population count at 17 April 1956).

1950–1952

Mäori life tables based on deaths of people with 'half or more Mäori blood provided that the remaining blood is European or Polynesian' and the population of 'half or more Mäori blood provided that the remaining blood is European or Polynesian'. Non-Mäori life tables based on deaths and population not included in the Mäori life tables, including deaths and population with no indication of the degree of Mäori blood.

Deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in New Zealand and people visiting from overseas.

Estimated de facto population at 30 June 1951 (based on census night population count at 17 April 1951).

8

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Subnational life tables For most subnational areas, death and population numbers are too small to construct reliable complete life tables. However, abridged life tables, which involve death and population data by age groups (0, 1–4, 5–9, ... 80–84, 85+ years), have been constructed for subnational areas. Nevertheless, even the abridged life tables must be interpreted with caution. Death and population numbers can fluctuate from year to year. In addition, the stated residence of the deceased may not reflect the geographic area(s) where that person spent most of their life. For many subnational areas, death and population numbers are also too small to construct reliable abridged life tables. Standardised death rates provide an alternative summary measure of the mortality experience of each area. Like life tables, they allow for the different age-sex composition of each area. Standardised death rates have been calculated for all regional councils and territorial authorities of New Zealand for the periods 1995–1997 and 2000–2002. A summary of subnational mortality and longevity trends from 1990–1992 to 2000–2002 is included in this report. The 1990–1992 life tables use a different population measure than later periods (table 1.02). More detailed results, including abridged life tables for various regions and territorial authority areas, are available on request (email: [email protected], freephone: 0508 525 525). Table 1.02

Summary of Different Deaths Measures and Population Measures In subnational abridged life tables 1990–2002

Period

Deaths measure

Population measure

2000–2002

Deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in each area.

Estimated resident population of each area at 30 June 2001 (based on census usually resident population count of each area at 6 March 2001).

1995–1997 revised revised

Deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in each area.

Estimated resident population of each area at 30 June 1996 revised (based on census usually resident population count of each area at 5 March 1996).

1995–1997

Deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in each area.

Estimated resident population of each area at 30 June 1996 (based on census usually resident population count of each area at 5 March 1996).

1990–1992

Deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in each area.

Census usually resident population count of each area at 5 March 1991.

9

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

10

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Part 2:

National trends in longevity and mortality This part presents a summary of mortality and longevity trends of the total population, Mäori population and non-Mäori population of New Zealand. Official complete life tables for New Zealand were first produced for the period 1880–1892, although these were for the non-Mäori population only. For periods from 1950–1952, complete life tables have been prepared for the total New Zealand and Mäori populations, in addition to life tables for the non-Mäori population. It is important to note that changes to ethnic concepts, deaths measures and population measures affect the historical comparability of these life tables, particularly those relating to the Mäori population (see Part 1: Background, including table 1.01).

Age distribution of deaths There were 82,550 deaths of New Zealand residents registered during the 2000–2002 period, comprising 41,756 male deaths and 40,794 female deaths. More than three-quarters of these deaths were of people aged 65 years and over (figure 2.01). The proportion of male deaths occurring at age 65 years and over increased from 57 percent in 1950–1952 to 73 percent in 2000–2002, while the percentage of female deaths occurring at age 65 years and over increased from 62 to 82 percent over the same period. In the 2000–2002 period, there were more male deaths in the 65–79 year age group than in the 80 years and over age group. In contrast, the number of female deaths at age 80 years and over was almost double the number of female deaths in the 65–79 year age group. Children (those under 15 years) accounted for 2 percent of deaths in 2000–2002, whereas they accounted for 11 percent of deaths in 1950–1952 and 5 percent of deaths in 1975–1977. Infants (under one year old) account for about two-thirds of the deaths of children. Ages between 15 and 29 years accounted for another 2 percent of deaths in 2000–2002, with 72 percent of these being male. Figure 2.01

Cumulative Deaths by Age and Sex Total population 1950–1952 and 2000–2002 Percent

100 80

Females, 1950-1952 60

Males, 1950-1952

40 Males, 2000-2002 20 Females, 2000-2002 0 0

10

20

30

40

50 Age (years)

11

60

70

80

90

100

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

New Zealand life expectancy Life expectancy at birth was 76.3 years for males and 81.1 years for females in 2000–2002 (table 2.01 and figure 2.02). Male life expectancy increased by 1.9 years from 74.4 years in 1995–1997. Female life expectancy increased by 1.4 years from 79.7 years in 1995–1997. The five-yearly increase in male life expectancy between 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 was the highest recorded during the last century. Over the last quarter of a century (1975–1977 to 2000–2002), male life expectancy at birth increased by 7.3 years. This compares with an increase of only 1.8 years in the previous 25 years, during which male life expectancy at birth decreased slightly between 1960–1962 and 1965–1967 (as a result of an increase in mortality rates from heart disease, cancer and motor vehicle accidents). Female life expectancy at birth increased by 5.7 years between 1975–1977 and 2000–2002. Like males, the female gain was greater than that seen in the previous 25-year period, when female life expectancy at birth increased by 4.2 years. Figure 2.02

Life Expectancy at Birth 1901–2002 85

Years of life Non-Mäori population

Total population

80

Female

75 70 65 Male

60 55 50 0 1901

1911

1921

1931

1941

1951

1961

1971

1981

1991

2001

Note: Life tables before 1950 were prepared for the non-Mäori population only.

Figure 2.03

Five-yearly Change in Life Expectancy at Birth Total population 1950–2002 2.0

Years of life

1.5

Male Female

1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 1950–1952

1955–1957

1960–1962

1965–1967

1970–1972

1975–1977

1980–1982

1985–1987

1990–1992

1995–1997

to 1955–1957

to 1960–1962

to 1965–1967

to 1970–1972

to 1975–1977

to 1980–1982

to 1985–1987

to 1990–1992

to 1995–1997

to 2000–2002

Mäori and non-Mäori life expectancy The 2000–2002 life tables indicate that a newborn Mäori boy can expect to live 69.0 years and a newborn Mäori girl 73.2 years (table 2.01). This is an increase of 2.4 years for males and 1.9 years for females over the revised 1995–1997 figures of 66.6 years and 71.3 years for males and females, respectively. For non-Mäori in 2000–2002, a newborn boy can expect to live 77.2 years and a newborn girl 81.9 years. This is an increase of 1.8 years for males and 1.3 years for females over the revised 1995–1997 figures of 75.4 years for non-Mäori males and 80.6 years for non-Mäori females. 12

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Mäori and non-Mäori life expectancy figures for 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 are not directly comparable with figures for 1990–1992 and earlier. This is mainly because of the impact of the new ethnicity question on the birth and death registration forms which were implemented in September 1995. More details on the new forms are contained in Part 1 (Background) of this report. Table 2.01

Life Expectancy at Selected Ages Total, Mäori and non-Mäori populations 1950–2002

Period

Male at Exact Age (years) 0

25

45

65

Female at Exact Age (years) 85

0

25

45

65

85

Total (years of life) 1950-1952 1955-1957

67.2 68.0

46.2 46.6

27.9 28.1

12.8 12.9

3.9 4.1

71.3 73.0

49.4 50.6

30.8 31.7

14.8 15.3

4.2 4.6

1960-1962

68.4

46.5

28.0

12.8

3.9

73.8

51.0

32.1

15.5

4.5

1965-1967

68.2

46.0

27.5

12.6

4.1

74.3

51.2

32.3

15.8

4.7

1970-1972

68.5

46.2

27.6

12.6

4.0

74.6

51.5

32.6

15.9

4.7

1975-1977

69.0

46.6

28.1

12.8

3.9

75.5

52.2

33.2

16.6

5.0

1980-1982

70.4

47.5

28.9

13.3

4.3

76.4

53.0

33.9

17.1

5.5

1985-1987

71.1

48.2

29.6

13.7

4.5

77.1

53.5

34.4

17.4

5.6

1990-1992

72.9

49.8

31.1

14.8

5.0

78.7

54.8

35.6

18.5

6.1

1995-1997

74.4

51.0

32.2

15.6

4.9

79.7

55.7

36.5

19.1

6.2

2000-2002

76.3

52.6

33.8

16.7

5.2

81.1

57.0

37.7

20.0

6.5

12.2 11.1 11.8 12.5 12.1 13.4 13.9 15.1 15.4

4.0 4.2 4.5 5.0 4.3 4.7 5.0 5.1 5.6

Mäori(1) (years of life) Life tables based on pre-1995 death registration form 1950-1952 1955-1957 1960-1962 1965-1967 1970-1972 1975-1977 1980-1982 1985-1987 1990-1992

54.0 57.2 59.0 61.4 61.0 63.3 65.1 67.4 68.0

38.3 39.8 39.8 40.7 39.6 41.2 42.7 44.8 45.2

22.5 23.2 23.1 23.4 22.6 23.7 24.8 26.6 27.0

10.5 10.7 10.7 10.6 10.7 11.0 11.3 12.3 12.7

3.4 3.9 3.5 3.4 3.5 4.2 3.9 4.2 4.6

55.9 58.7 61.4 64.8 65.0 67.7 69.5 72.3 73.0

39.2 39.7 40.6 42.7 42.8 44.9 46.5 49.0 49.2

23.3 22.7 23.5 24.9 25.1 26.7 28.1 30.2 30.4

Life tables based on death registration form introduced in September 1995 1995-1997 2000-2002

66.6 69.0

43.7 45.6

25.6 27.3

11.7 12.7

3.6 4.2

71.3 73.2

47.8 49.3

29.1 30.4

14.1 15.1

4.9 5.2

14.8 15.3 15.5 15.9 16.0 16.7 17.2 17.5 18.6

4.2 4.6 4.5 4.7 4.7 5.1 5.5 5.6 6.1

Non-Mäori(1) (years of life) Life tables based on pre-1995 death registration form 1950-1952 1955-1957 1960-1962 1965-1967 1970-1972 1975-1977 1980-1982 1985-1987 1990-1992

68.3 68.9 69.2 68.7 69.1 69.4 70.8 71.4 73.4

46.6 46.9 46.9 46.3 46.5 46.9 47.8 48.4 50.1

28.1 28.3 28.2 27.7 27.9 28.2 29.1 29.7 31.4

12.9 12.9 12.8 12.6 12.6 12.9 13.4 13.7 14.9

3.9 4.1 3.9 4.2 4.0 3.9 4.4 4.6 5.0

72.4 73.9 74.5 74.8 75.2 75.9 76.9 77.4 79.2

49.8 51.0 51.5 51.6 51.9 52.6 53.3 53.8 55.2

31.1 32.0 32.4 32.6 32.8 33.5 34.2 34.6 36.0

Life tables based on death registration form introduced in September 1995 1995-1997 2000-2002

75.4 77.2

51.7 53.3

32.8 34.4

15.8 16.9

4.9 5.2

80.6 81.9

56.5 57.7

37.1 38.3

19.3 20.2

(1) Comparisons over time and between Mäori and non-Mäori should be interpreted with caution because of changes in ethnic concept and data sources, as summarised in Table 1.01.

13

6.2 6.5

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Mäori/non-Mäori differentials in life expectancy During the period 1995–1997 to 2000–2002, Mäori life expectancy increased more than non-Mäori life expectancy. As a result, the non-Mäori advantage over Mäori in life expectancy at birth has narrowed slightly (table 2.02). Revised life tables for 1995–1997 suggest the difference was 8.8 years for males and 9.3 years for females. This has decreased by about half a year to 8.2 years for males and 8.8 years for females in 2000–2002. Table 2.02

Difference between Mäori and Non-Mäori Life Expectancy At selected ages 1950–2002

Period

Male at Exact Age (years) 0

25

45

Female at Exact Age (years)

65

85

0

Non-Mäori minus Mäori

(1)

25

45

65

85

7.7 9.3 8.9 7.7 7.7 6.8 6.1 4.4 5.6

2.7 4.3 3.7 3.4 3.9 3.3 3.4 2.4 3.2

0.3 0.4 0.0 -0.3 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.5

5.3 5.2

1.2 1.3

(years of life)

Life tables based on pre-1995 death registration form 1950-1952 1955-1957 1960-1962 1965-1967 1970-1972 1975-1977 1980-1982 1985-1987 1990-1992

14.3 11.7 10.1 7.2 8.1 6.0 5.7 3.9 5.4

8.3 7.1 7.0 5.6 6.9 5.7 5.2 3.6 4.9

1995-1997 2000-2002

8.8 8.2

8.1 7.8

5.6 5.1 5.0 4.3 5.3 4.5 4.4 3.1 4.4

2.4 2.2 2.2 2.0 1.9 1.9 2.0 1.4 2.2

0.5 0.2 0.3 0.7 0.5 -0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3

16.6 15.2 13.1 10.1 10.2 8.1 7.3 5.1 6.2

10.6 11.3 10.8 8.9 9.1 7.7 6.8 4.8 6.0

Life tables based on death registration form introduced in September 1995 7.2 7.1

4.0 4.2

1.3 1.1

9.3 8.8

8.7 8.4

8.0 7.9

(1) Comparisons over time and between Mäori and non-Mäori should be interpreted with caution because of changes in ethnic concept and data sources, as summarised in Table 1.01.

Male-female difference in life expectancy Prior to 1975–1977, female life expectancy generally increased faster than that for males. As a result, the difference between female and male life expectancy at birth increased from 4.1 years in 1950– 1952 to a peak of 6.4 years in 1975–1977 (table 2.03). Since then, male life expectancy has been increasing faster and in 2000–2002 the difference had narrowed to 4.8 years. The life expectancy at birth of males in 2000–2002 was attained 20 years earlier by females. Table 2.03

Difference between Male and Female Life Expectancy At selected ages, total population 1950–2002

Period

Exact Age (years) 0

25

45

65

85

Female minus male (years of life) 1950-1952 1955-1957 1960-1962 1965-1967 1970-1972 1975-1977 1980-1982 1985-1987 1990-1992 1995-1997 2000-2002

4.1 5.0 5.3 6.1 6.0 6.4 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.3 4.8

3.2 4.0 4.5 5.2 5.3 5.6 5.5 5.3 5.1 4.8 4.4

2.9 3.6 4.1 4.8 4.9 5.2 5.0 4.8 4.5 4.3 3.8

2.0 2.4 2.7 3.3 3.4 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.3

0.4 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.7 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3

Note: Owing to rounding, some figures in this table may differ from the corresponding figures obtained from other tables.

14

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Females also have a longevity advantage over males among both Mäori and non-Mäori. For the Mäori population, male life expectancy increased more than female life expectancy between the periods 1995–1997 and 2000–2002. As a consequence the female longevity advantage decreased from 4.7 years in 1995–1997 to 4.2 years in 2000–2002. Among non-Mäori, females can expect to outlive males by 4.8 years in 2000–2002, down from 5.2 years in 1995–1997. The closing gap between male and female life expectancy has also been observed overseas, such as in Australia where the gap peaked at about seven years in the 1970s and early 1980s, but has declined to just over five years in 2000–2002 (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2003b). Similarly, the difference between male and female life expectancies at birth in the United Kingdom decreased from 6.0 years in 1980–1982 to 4.7 years in 2000–2002 (Government Actuary’s Department, 2004).

International comparison of life expectancy Life expectancy at birth in New Zealand is higher than in the United States and the United Kingdom (table 2.04). However New Zealand male life expectancy is about two years lower than in Hong Kong and Japan and about a year lower than in Australia. The difference is greater for female life expectancy, with New Zealand almost four years lower than Hong Kong and Japan and one and a half years lower than Australia. Despite the lower life expectancy compared with some countries, higher life expectancy gains in New Zealand over the last five-year period mean the gap has closed. In fact the high gains over the last five-year period have seen New Zealand life expectancy surpass that for the Netherlands, and New Zealand female life expectancy also surpass that for the United Kingdom. Between 1995– 1997 and 2000–2002, newborn male New Zealanders gained about an extra year of life compared with Sweden, Japan and the Netherlands, while newborn females gained about an extra year of life compared with the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Table 2.04

International Comparison of Life Expectancy at Birth Country

Period

Male

Female Years of life

Australia France Hong Kong (SAR) Japan Netherlands NEW ZEALAND Singapore Sweden United Kingdom United States

2000-2002 2001(1) 2001 2001 2001 2000-2002 2001 1999-2003 2000-2002 2001

77.4 75.5 78.4 78.1 75.8 76.3 76.4 77.5 75.7 74.4

Source: Refer to References section (1) Provisional

15

82.6 82.9 84.6 84.9 80.7 81.1 80.3 82.3 80.4 79.8

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Age contribution to longevity differences It is possible to determine the contribution that each age group has made to longevity differences between periods or between populations (eg Mäori and non-Mäori). This comparison involves calculating and comparing “hypothetical or temporary” life expectancies at each age. Hypothetical life expectancy is the average number of years that a group of people will live from age x to x + i years (where i is the age interval). For further methodological details on this process see Arriaga (1984). The gains in life expectancy at birth between 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 were due largely to the reduction in death rates among the late working ages (50–64 years) and retirement ages (65–79 years). Reduced death rates among young adults (15–29 years) and the very old (80 years and over, especially females) also made a significant contribution (figure 2.04). Figure 2.04

Age Contribution to Longevity Gain Total population 1995–1997 to 2000–2002

40

Percent of total gain

30

20 Male Female

10

0 0

1-14

15-29

30-49 50-64 Age group (years)

65-79

80 and over

Over a longer timeframe, between 1975–1977 and 2000–2002, it was also the late working ages (50–64 years) and retirement ages (65–79 years) which provided the majority of the gain in life expectancy (figure 2.05). Reduced death rates among infants, the middle ages (30–49 years) and females aged 80 years and over were also significant. Figure 2.05

Age Contribution to Longevity Gain Total population 1975–1977 to 2000–2002 40

Percent of total gain

30

20

Male Female

10

0 0

1-14

15-29

30-49 50-64 Age group (years)

16

65-79

80 and over

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Between the periods 1995–1997 and 2000–2002, about half of the gain in Mäori life expectancy resulted from reductions in mortality rates at the late working and retirement ages (50–79 years) (figure 2.06). Significant contributions also resulted from mortality reductions for those aged 30–49 years and from young adult males (15–29 years). Figure 2.06

Age Contribution to Longevity Gain Mäori population 1995–1997 to 2000–2002

Percent of total gain

40

30

20

Male Female

10

0 0

1-14

15-29

30-49 50-64 Age group (years)

65-79

80 and over

About three-quarters of the difference between Mäori and non-Mäori life expectancy in 2000–2002 was due to lower non-Mäori death rates at ages 45–79 years (figure 2.07). The difference partly reflects different rates of smoking and diabetes, as well as socio-economic differences. According to the 1996/1997 New Zealand Health Survey, Mäori people were more than twice as likely to have been diagnosed with diabetes than European people, and nearly half of all Mäori adults reported that they were current smokers compared with 23 percent of European adults (Ministry of Health, 1999). Similarly, the 1996 Census reported that 44 percent of Mäori aged 15 years and over were regular smokers, compared with 21 percent of non-Mäori (Statistics New Zealand, 1997a). Figure 2.07

Age Contribution to Mäori/Non-Mäori Longevity Difference 2000–2002 40

Percent of total difference

30

20 Male Female 10

0 0

1-14

15-29

30-49 50-64 Age group (years)

17

65-79

80+

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Age-specific death rates Total population The New Zealand life table is not unusual by international standards. It is characterised by relatively high death rates in the first year of life (5 to 6 deaths per 1,000 live births). Death rates decrease to their lowest among ages 8–11 years then increase to a bulge around 20 years of age, especially for males (figure 2.08). Death rates then change little until the mid-30s for males and the late 20s for females, when they begin to increase gradually with age. There is 1 death per 100 people at about 60 years of age for males and 65 years of age for females. By about 85 years of age, death rates have reached 1 death per 10 people. Females experience lower death rates than males at all ages. Figure 2.08

Age-specific Death Rates Total population 2000–2002

Deaths per 10,000 population

10,000

1,000 Males

100

Females 10

1 0

10

20

30

40

50 Age (years)

60

70

80

90

100

Change between 1950–1952 and 2000–2002 Between 1950–1952 and 2000–2002, male and female death rates decreased at all ages. However, the decreases were not uniform across age or time (figures 2.09–2.11). Between 1950–1952 and 1975–1977, male death rates actually increased slightly at ages 17–21 years and at some ages between 48 and 88 years. The increase in male death rates around 20 years of age accentuated the ‘accident hump’ at age 15–29 years, so-called because accidents (especially motor vehicle accidents) were the leading cause of death at those ages. An accident hump was also evident among female death rates around 20 years of age in 1975–1977, although this was smaller than for males. These humps were still apparent in 1995–1997 but had become little more than a ‘bulge’ by 2000–2002. Figure 2.09

Male Age-specific Death Rates Total population 1950–1952, 1975–1977 and 2000–2002 10,000

Deaths per 10,000 population

1,000 1950-1952

100

1975-1977

2000-2002

10

1 0

10

20

30

40

50 Age (years)

18

60

70

80

90

100

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Figure 2.10

Female Age-specific Death Rates Total population 1950–1952, 1975–1977 and 2000–2002 10,000

Deaths per 10,000 population

1,000

100

1950–1952 1975–1977

2000–2002

10

1 0

10

20

30

40

50 Age (years)

60

70

80

90

100

Figure 2.11

Death Rates at Selected Ages Total population 1950–2002 Males 1,400

Females

Deaths per 10,000 population

1,400

Deaths per 10,000 population

80 years 1,200

1,200

1,000

1,000

800

80 years

800

70 years 600 400

600

0 years

400

60 years

200

60 years

70 years

200

40 years 0 1950-1952

0 years

1975-1977

0 1950-1952

2000-2002

19

40 years 1975-1977

2000-2002

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Between 1950–1952 and 1975–1977, female death rates declined more than male death rates at almost all ages above 15 years (figure 2.12). Female death rates decreased by more than 20 percent at most ages, and by an average of 38 percent under 40 years. For males, the largest percentage decreases occured under 15 years of age, while little change was recorded between 40 and 90 years of age. Male death rates around 20 years of age increased. Figure 2.12

Decrease in Age-specific Death Rates Total population 1950–1952 to 1975–1977

80

Percent

60 40 Female 20 0 Male

-20 -40 0

10

20

30

40

50 Age (years)

60

70

80

90

100

The pattern of change in age-specific death rates between 1975–1977 and 2000–2002 was broadly similar for males and females (figure 2.13). For both sexes, all ages experienced declines in death rates over this period. As for 1950–1952 to 1975–1977, the largest percentage decreases in death rates between 1975–1977 and 2000–2002 occurred in the youngest ages. Over this 25-year period, death rates declined by 44–67 percent under 13 years of age. The smallest percentage decreases for males were experienced around 30 years of age, which conversely experienced high percentage decreases in death rates between 1950–1952 and 1975–1977. As with the previous 25-year period, the change in female death rates between 1975–1977 and 2000–2002 was more consistent across age than for males, averaging about 40 percent. Figure 2.13

Decrease in Age-specific Death Rates Total population 1975–1977 to 2000–2002

80

Percent Male

60 40 Female 20 0 0

10

20

30

40

50 Age (years)

20

60

70

80

90

100

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Mäori and non-Mäori Non-Mäori experience lower death rates than Mäori at all ages (figure 2.14). Among males aged in their 50s and females aged in their 50s and 60s, Mäori death rates are roughly three times that of non-Mäori. Figure 2.14

Age-specific Death Rates

Mäori and non-Mäori populations 2000–2002 Deaths per 10,000 population

10,000

Mäori male 1,000

Mäori female

100 Non-Mäori male 10 Non-Mäori female 1 0

10

20

30

40

50 Age (years)

60

70

80

90

100

Chance of survival Based on the 2000–2002 mortality experience, 95 percent of newborn babies can expect to reach 50 years of age (figure 2.15). After that, the chance of survival decreases rapidly, with a faster decline for males than for females. About 84 percent of newborn boys and 89 percent of newborn girls can expect to live to 65 years of age. About half of newborn boys are expected to reach 80 years of age, compared with almost two-thirds of newborn girls. The chance of reaching 100 years is about 1 in 200 for newborn boys and 1 in 50 for newborn girls. Figure 2.15

Chance of Survival from Birth to Selected Ages 2000–2002

100

Percent Male

80

Female 60 40 20 0 50

65

80 Age (years)

21

95

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

According to the 2000–2002 life tables, about 96 percent of newborn non-Mäori babies can expect to reach 50 years of age compared with about 92 percent of newborn Mäori babies (table 2.05). As age increases, the decrease in the chance of survival is more pronounced for Mäori than for non-Mäori. About half of newborn non-Mäori boys are expected to reach age 80 years, compared with onequarter of newborn Mäori boys. For females, 67 percent of newborn non-Mäori girls are expected to reach age 80 years, compared with 38 percent of newborn Mäori girls. Table 2.05

Chance of Survival from Birth to Selected Ages Total, Mäori and non-Mäori populations 2000–2002 Exact Age (years)

Total Male

Mäori Female

Male

Non-Mäori Female

Male

Female

95 86 51 4

97 91 67 10

Percent 50 65 80 95

94 84 49 4

96 89 64 10

90 68 25 1

93 75 38 3

Infant mortality The New Zealand infant mortality rate has fallen markedly over the last 50 years. For males, the infant mortality rate decreased from 31.1 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1950–1952 to 7.2 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1995–1997, and further to 6.1 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2000–2002 (table 2.06). Females experienced a similar improvement, from 25.4 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1950– 1952 to 6.3 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1995–1997, and further to 5.2 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2000–2002. The improvement in infant mortality is due to reductions in both the endogenous (related to the birth process) and exogenous (related to external circumstances) components of mortality in the first year of life. Table 2.06

Infant Mortality Rate Total population 1950–2002 Period

Male

Female

Deaths per 1,000 live births 1950-1952 1955-1957 1960-1962 1965-1967 1970-1972 1975-1977 1980-1982 1985-1987 1990-1992 1995-1997 2000-2002

31.1 27.5 24.9 21.1 18.1 16.9 13.3 11.7 9.2 7.2 6.1

25.4 20.9 19.0 15.5 14.6 12.3 10.8 9.6 6.7 6.3 5.2

The 2000–2002 New Zealand infant mortality rates are a little higher than those in Australia (5.6 for males and 4.6 for females) and the United Kingdom (6.0 for males and 4.8 for females) for the same period. They are nearly twice those in Japan, which recorded only 3.3 deaths per 1,000 live births for males and 2.8 deaths per 1,000 live births for females in 2001. However the New Zealand rates are lower than those in the United States, which recorded 7.5 deaths per 1,000 live births for males and 6.1 deaths per 1,000 live births for females in 2001.

22

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Causes of death Diseases of the circulatory system (eg heart attacks, strokes) are the major cause of death in New Zealand. In the year ended December 2000 (the latest year for which cause of death data has been processed by the New Zealand Health Information Service), 41 percent of all deaths were due to this cause (figure 2.16). Cancers were the next biggest cause of death, accounting for 29 percent of deaths, followed by diseases of the respiratory system (8 percent) and accidents/poisonings/violence (6 percent). Diabetes, diseases of the nervous and digestive systems, mental disorders and other causes made up the remaining 16 percent. Figure 2.16

Deaths by Cause Total population 2000 Circulatory diseases

Cancer

Respiratory diseases

Accidents/poisonings/violence

Other 0

10

20 30 Percent

23

40

50

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Eighty-six percent of deaths from circulatory diseases in 2000 were of people aged 65 years and over. Over the last two decades, mortality rates from circulatory diseases have dropped by 40 percent for males aged 65 years and over and 29 percent for females aged 65 years and over. For those aged 45–64 years the decreases have been greater, at 64 and 62 percent for males and females, respectively (table 2.07). In contrast, mortality rates from cancer have shown different trends. For those aged 65 years and over, the rates in 2000 were higher than those recorded two decades earlier – up 8 percent for males and up 10 percent for females. For those aged 45–64 years, the rates have decreased by 31 and 23 percent for males and females, respectively, since 1980–1982. Cancer is the leading cause of death for people aged 45–64 years, accounting for 46 percent of deaths in 2000. For people aged 15–24 years, accidents/poisonings/violence accounted for about 80 percent of male deaths and 60 percent of female deaths in 2000. Male deaths outnumbered female deaths from this cause by about 4 to 1 among the 15–24 year age group. Mortality rates from accidents/poisonings/ violence have dropped by 31 percent for males and 38 percent for females aged 15–24 years since 1980–1982.

24

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Table 2.07

Mortality Rates by Cause of Death Total population 1980–2000

Deaths per 100,000 Persons in Age-sex Group(1) Age Group (years)

Male

Female

1980-1982 1985-1987 1990-1992 1995-1997

1980-1982 1985-1987 1990-1992 1995-1997

2000

0 1-14 15-24 25-44 45-64 65+ All ages

9 1 4 39 569 3,630 421

3 2 4 32 511 3,340 399

8 1 6 30 372 2,838 357

Diseases of the circulatory system(2) 2 0 8 13 1 1 1 1 4 3 7 3 28 27 19 16 284 207 240 202 2,507 2,187 2,836 2,683 319 282 371 365

0 1-14 15-24 25-44 45-64 65+ All ages

9 7 11 33 328 1,446 194

3 7 8 30 324 1,542 208

3 6 8 29 307 1,509 216

4 5 9 22 256 1,517 214

0 1-14 15-24 25-44 45-64 65+ All ages

104 4 5 8 74 935 98

91 2 4 6 66 955 101

0 1-14 15-24 25-44 45-64 65+ All ages

30 23 120 78 76 170 79

0 1-14 15-24 25-44 45-64 65+ All ages 0 1-14 15-24 25-44 45-64 65+ All ages

2000

10 1 2 14 149 2,310 330

5 1 3 12 106 2,166 305

11 0 1 12 91 2,000 283

4 5 6 40 292 920 177

5 4 5 39 282 934 185

4 4 6 34 260 975 189

0 4 6 32 220 952 182

37 2 1 2 42 728 81

Diseases of the respiratory system(4) 29 24 110 70 1 1 3 2 2 0 6 4 3 4 8 5 32 22 48 53 742 488 510 591 83 58 72 84

15 1 1 3 37 519 75

25 1 1 3 29 567 80

11 1 1 2 23 330 49

33 21 138 84 72 157 83

28 20 135 84 64 114 77

Accidents, poisonings, violence(5) 52 34 37 32 14 13 15 16 110 83 35 37 78 75 23 25 57 50 36 29 109 105 175 138 67 59 43 39

30 11 34 23 23 90 31

31 10 34 20 19 86 29

33 9 22 19 18 79 25

1,204 11 13 18 102 562 96

1,084 11 12 20 92 644 102

875 11 10 24 86 620 104

644 8 12 23 83 632 101

Other(6) 636 940 9 11 9 9 21 14 69 73 707 531 109 96

873 9 8 13 68 612 107

614 8 11 13 64 584 104

594 8 9 14 58 655 112

510 7 6 11 57 713 117

1,356 45 153 176 1,149 6,743 888

1,213 44 166 171 1,064 6,639 892

950 40 160 169 870 5,809 834

732 29 136 154 711 5,507 785

All causes 698 1,099 29 34 102 65 148 104 576 684 5,050 4,917 729 745

992 33 58 98 643 4,945 772

674 25 54 91 555 4,437 726

659 24 54 83 471 4,448 716

565 20 35 75 408 4,074 657

Neoplasms(3) 3 4 5 4 7 8 21 41 228 286 1,563 864 221 163

Source: Cause of death data obtained from New Zealand Health Information Service annual reports 'Mortality and Demographic Data'. (1) Rates calculated on an average annual basis. (3) Cancers. (5) Motor vehicle accidents, suicides, homicides, falls, etc.

(2) Heart attacks, strokes, etc. (4) Pneumonia, influenza, lung-related problems, etc. (6) Diabetes, diseases of nervous and digestive systems & other diseases.

Note: The population used for 1980-1982 and 1985-1987 was the mean estimated de facto population for the December years; for 1990-1992 it was the 1991 census night population count; for 1995-1997 it was the estimated resident population at 30 June 1996 (revised); and for 2000 it was the mean estimated resident population for the December 2000 year.

25

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

26

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Part 3:

National methodology This part details the data and methods used to derive the 1995–1997 (revised) and 2000–2002 complete life tables presented in this report.

Data The data used to construct the 1995–1997 (revised) and 2000–2002 complete life tables comprised: a. deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in New Zealand in the December years 1995–1997 and 2000–2002, respectively, by single-year of age, sex and ethnicity b. live births registered in New Zealand to mothers resident in New Zealand in the December years 1994–1997 and 1999–2002, respectively, by sex and ethnicity c. the estimated resident population of New Zealand at 30 June 1996 and 30 June 2001, respectively, by single-year of age, sex and ethnicity.

Deaths numerator The life tables were compiled from deaths registered, rather than deaths occurring, in each respective three-year period. Most death statistics refer to registrations rather than occurrences for a given time period, because of the time lag between when the death occurred and when it is registered. Hence, the number of death registrations can be confirmed before the number of death occurrences for a given time period. For periods of a year or more, the difference between registrations and occurrences is generally small, so death statistics referring to registrations are suitable for most purposes. Ethnic birth and death data from the new registration forms were not available for the entire three-year period 1995–1997. To ensure consistency of data over the 1995–1997 period, ethnic vital statistics for 1995 were estimated using the age-sex-ethnic distribution of vitals data for 1996 and 1997. An allowance for ethnic non-response among deaths was also made. There was no response to the ethnicity question for about 2.4 percent of deaths in 1996–1997 and 3.5 percent of deaths in 2000–2002. Because deaths in the first year of life are skewed towards the early part of this age, infant death rates were calculated from more detailed data. This involved the division of the first year of life into more detailed ages.

Population denominator (exposed-to-risk population) Usually the mean population of each period is used as the denominator to calculate death rates. However, mean population estimates are not available for all ethnic populations. To ensure consistency of method among all population subgroups, the estimated resident population at 30 June (the midpoint) of each period was used. The impact of using ‘midpoint’ rather than ‘mean’ population estimates is generally insignificant. The estimated resident populations at 30 June 1996 and 30 June 2001 were based on the census usually resident population counts at 5 March 1996 and 6 March 2001, respectively, and adjusted for: a. non-response to the census ethnicity question b. net census undercount c. residents temporarily overseas on census night d. births, deaths and net migration between census night and 30 June of the census year e. reconciliation with demographic estimates at ages 0–9 years. The 2001 Census asked people “Which ethnic group do you belong to? Mark the space or spaces which apply to you”. The census usually resident population count of 3,737,277 included 526,281 who identified with the Mäori ethnicity and 150,546 with no ethnic response. The 2000–2002 life tables use as a population denominator the estimated resident population of each ethnicity of New Zealand at 30 June 2001. New Zealand’s estimated resident population of 3,880,000 included 586,000 who identified with the Mäori ethnicity.

27

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

The 1996 Census asked people to “Tick as many circles as you need to show which ethnic group(s) you belong to”. The census usually resident population count of 3,618,303 included 523,371 who identified with the Mäori ethnicity and 151,713 with no ethnic response. The 1995–1997 life tables use as a population denominator the estimated resident population of each ethnicity of New Zealand at 30 June 1996. New Zealand’s estimated resident population of 3,732,000 included 573,000 who identified with the Mäori ethnicity. Because of changes to the census ethnicity question between 1996 and 2001, the 1996 and 2001 population estimates for ethnic groups are not necessarily comparable. Nevertheless, the derived mortality measures presented here are considered to give a statistically satisfactory description of Mäori and non-Mäori mortality experience during the 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 periods. Note that all population estimates used in the 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 life tables were derived using the same methodology. In addition, the ethnicity question used in the 1996 Census is the same as that used in birth and death registration forms from September 1995. The use of population estimates based on the 1996 Census also allows the adjustment ratios presented in Ajwani (2003) to be incorporated. For more information about the estimated resident population, refer to “Information about the population estimates” on the Statistics New Zealand website (www.stats.govt.nz).

Derived rates The life tables were based on deaths averaged over three years. This is designed to reduce the impact of year-to-year statistical variations, particularly at younger ages where there is a small number of deaths and at very old ages where the population at risk is small. In some cases the New Zealand data does not enable death rates to be reliably estimated at all ages. For most ages above 90 years, death rates of the total New Zealand population have been modelled on the mortality trends of other countries such as Australia, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom and United States. For the Mäori and non-Mäori populations, death rates have also been modelled at some younger ages. There are some small observed numerator-denominator ethnic differences since 1995, in comparison with 1996 and 2001 Census data. For the 2000–2002 life tables, these estimated differences are not significant enough to reliably adjust death numbers by age, sex and ethnicity. For the 1995–1997 life tables, the smooth adjustment factors presented in Ajwani (2003) have been applied to Mäori deaths by age to allow for under-reporting of Mäori deaths (relative to the Mäori population). The adjustment factors range from 0.94 (ie a deflation in deaths) at age 0 years to 1.14 at ages 20–24 years. For the non-Mäori life tables, corresponding adjustments have been applied to non-Mäori deaths by age. These adjustment factors affect Mäori life expectancy at birth by about 0.7 years and non-Mäori life expectancy at birth by about 0.1 years. The 1995–1997 life tables for the total New Zealand, Mäori and non-Mäori populations published in July 1998 have therefore been revised. For all populations the revision also incorporates updated population estimates (at 30 June 1996) and a revised method of estimating death rates at the oldest ages. The construction of each complete life table involved two stages. First, central death rates (mx) were calculated for each age (x), except the first year of life, and were then smoothed to eliminate any apparent irregularities. Second, the smoothed rates were used to calculate a set of age-specific probabilities of death (qx), which were then used to derive other life table functions. The derivation of the mortality rate in the first year of life differed from all other ages and required special formulae as detailed below in ‘Age 0 years’.

28

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Life table notation x

Exact age (eg exact age 5 corresponds to 5 years and 0 days).

lx

Number of people alive at exact age x from the original group of 100,000 (l0).

Lx

Average number of persons alive in the age interval x to x + 1.

dx

Number of deaths in the age interval x to x + 1.

qx

Probability that a person at exact age x dies within a year.

5 x

q

Probability that a person at exact age x dies within 5 years.

px

Probability that a person at exact age x lives another year.

p

Probability that a person at exact age x lives another 5 years.

mx

Central death rate for population in the age group x to x + 5.

5 x

s

Proportion of population in the age group x to x + 5 surviving another 5 years.

e0 x

Expected number of years of life remaining at exact age x.

5 x 5

Age 0 years The probability of dying in the first year of life (q0) required special treatment because infant deaths are skewed towards the early part of this age. The first year of life was divided into eight minor age intervals (n): 1. less than 1 day 2. from 1 day to less than 2 days 3. from 2 days to less than 7 days 4. from 1 week to less than 4 weeks 5. from 4 weeks to less than 3 months 6. from 3 months to less than 6 months 7. from 6 months to less than 9 months 8. from 9 months to less than 12 months. For each of these age intervals the values of q0(n), l0(n) and d0(n) were calculated. The following examples show the formula for calculating q0(n) for two of these age intervals for 2000–2002, where the denominator reflects the exposed-to-risk population: For n = 3

For n = 5

q 0 (2days < 7 days ) =

Deaths ( 2000 – 2002, age 2days < 7 days ) B2000 + B2001 + B2002 − k

q 0 (4 weeks < 3months ) =

Deaths (2000 – 2002, age 4 weeks < 3months ) 2 4 B 4 + B2000 + B2001 + B2002 − 23 B2002 −k 3 1999

29

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

where, for example:

q 0 (4 weeks < 3 months)

probability of dying between 4 weeks and 3 months of life

B 2002

live births in 2002

4 B 2002

live births in the fourth (December) quarter of 2002

k

is an adjustment for deaths and migration made to the denominator to exclude those persons in the original birth cohort who died in an earlier age interval, and to allow for the effect of net migration, in order to give the correct ‘exposed-to-risk’ population

The values of q0(n) were then used to calculate l0(n) and d0(n): Given

l0 (1) = 100,000

then

l0 (n) = l0 (n − 1). (1 − q 0 (n − 1)) for n = 2, 3,..., 8

the radix of a life table

d 0 (1) = 100,000. q 0 (1) d 0 ( n) = l 0 ( n ). q 0 ( n)

for n = 2, 3,..., 8

8

d 0 = ¦ d 0 ( n) n =1

and

q0 =

d0 l0 (1)

The value of L0 was calculated as follows:

L0 (n) = 21 (l0 (n) + l0 (n + 1))

for n = 1, 2,..., 7

L0 (8) = 21 (l0 (8) + l1 )

where l1 = l0 (1). (1 − q 0 )

8

L0 = ¦ ( L0 ( n). w(n)) n =1

where w(n) is the weight given by the fraction of the year covered by the age interval (n). For example, for n = 6:

w(3months < 6months ) =

1 4

30

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Age 1 year and over The central death rates (mx) were first calculated for each single year of age by dividing the average annual deaths of New Zealand residents for the period by the estimated resident population at the midpoint of the period. For 2000–2002:

mx =

1 3

.Deaths (2000 − 2002, age x)

Population (30 June 2001, age x)

Some refinement of data was made in the very old ages, above 90 years, to offset the effects of age misreporting and small death numbers. The central death rates derived from actual data also showed minor fluctuations across other ages. To minimise these fluctuations the rates were smoothed using a cubic spline method (figure 3.01). For more details on the cubic spline method see Benjamin and Pollard (1980) and Department of Statistics (1986). Figure 3.01

Comparison of Actual and Smoothed Mortality Rates Male 2000–2002 10,000

Deaths per 10,000 population Smoothed

1,000

100 Actual 10

1 0

10

20

30

40

50 60 Age (years)

70

80

90

100

The smoothed central death rates were then used to calculate the corresponding values of qx for each age using the equation:

qx =

mx 1

1 + 2 mx

Each series of qx was tested to ensure that the deviations between the actual and expected deaths were minimal. The values of qx were then used to derive the remaining life table functions:

l 0 = 100,000

the radix of a life table

l x +1 = l x (1 − q x ) 1

Lx = 2 (l x + l x +1 ) d x = lx q x

px = 1 − q x h

0

ex =

¦ i =0

Lx +i lx

where h is the highest age of a given population group

31

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Supplementary functions for five-year age groups In addition to the main life table functions, the following supplementary functions for five-year age groups have been calculated for 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 and are contained in Appendix 3:

px =

5

q x = 1− 5 p x 4

5

mx =

¦

d x +i

¦

Lx + i

i =0 4 i =0 4

5

l x +5 lx

5

sx =

¦

L x + 5+ i

¦

Lx + i

i =0 4

i =0

32

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Part 4:

Subnational trends in longevity and mortality This part presents a summary of mortality and longevity trends for the total population of subnational areas (regional councils and territorial authorities). Abridged life tables for regional council areas (regions) were first produced in 1994 for the period 1990–1992. In 1998, regional life tables for the 1995–1997 period were published, although these have now been revised. This report contains summary results from the 1990–1992, 1995–1997 (revised) and 2000–2002 abridged life tables for regions. The 1990–1992 life tables use a different population measure than later periods (see table 1.02). In addition, abridged life tables have been produced for selected territorial authority areas for 1995– 1997 and 2000–2002, where death numbers are sufficient to produce reliable life tables. Because life tables cannot be reliably produced for many subnational areas, standardised death rates have also been derived for all regional council and territorial authority areas of New Zealand for the periods 1995–1997 and 2000–2002. As with life tables, standardised death rates allow for the different agesex composition of each area. However, the derivation of standardised death rates is less sensitive than life tables to age groups with zero deaths. To minimise annual fluctuations in mortality rates, the mortality measures are calculated for a threeyear period. Nevertheless, all subnational mortality and longevity trends should be interpreted with caution. Death and population numbers can fluctuate from period to period. In addition, the stated residence of the deceased may not reflect the geographic area(s) where that person spent most of their life. It should be noted that the data from the abridged life tables may differ from data from the complete life tables.

Regional life expectancy at birth Although New Zealanders’ life expectancy at birth has improved by five years in the last two decades, there are some significant regional differences in life expectancy (figures 4.01 and 4.02). According to the 2000–2002 abridged life tables for regional councils, life expectancy at birth ranged from 72.6 to 77.5 years for males and 78.9 to 82.2 years for females (table 4.01). Possible reasons for regional variations in mortality and life expectancy are discussed in the ‘Possible causal factors’ section below. The regional life tables indicate that five regions have experienced both male and female life expectancies at birth consistently above the New Zealand average over the last decade: Auckland, Wellington, Tasman, Canterbury and Otago (figures 4.03 to 4.05). Conversely, life expectancy in Gisborne Region was significantly below the national average. Other regions with life expectancies consistently below the national average over the last decade were Northland, Bay of Plenty, Hawke’s Bay, Manawatu-Wanganui, West Coast and Southland. The remaining regions of Waikato, Taranaki, Nelson and Marlborough experienced life expectancies around the national average. According to the abridged life tables, between 1995–1997 and 2000–2002, life expectancy at birth in New Zealand improved by 2.0 years for males and 1.6 years for females. All regions experienced life expectancy gains over this period, although the size of the gains varied significantly. Auckland, Wellington and Canterbury regions were the only regions to experience improvements greater than the national average for both males and females.

33

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Figure 4.01

Male Life Expectancy at Birth Regional councils 2000–2002

34

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Figure 4.02

Female Life Expectancy at Birth Regional councils 2000–2002

35

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Table 4.01

Life Expectancy at Birth Regional councils and selected territorial authorities 1990–1992, 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 Regional Council / Territorial Authority(1)

1990–1992(2) Male Female F-M

Male

1995–1997 Female

F-M

Male

2000–2002 Female

F-M

Years of life Northland Region Far North District Whangarei District

71.7 .. ..

78.2 .. ..

6.5 .. ..

72.8 71.8 73.5

78.6 77.4 79.2

5.8 5.6 5.7

74.0 73.3 74.8

80.1 80.2 80.3

6.1 6.9 5.5

Auckland Region Rodney District North Shore City Waitakere City Auckland City Manukau City Papakura District Franklin District

73.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

79.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

6.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

75.2 76.0 76.9 74.6 74.8 75.0 73.3 74.4

80.2 80.7 81.6 80.1 80.1 79.6 79.3 79.3

5.0 4.8 4.7 5.5 5.3 4.6 6.0 4.9

77.5 78.5 79.1 77.7 77.7 76.2 76.2 77.0

82.1 82.5 83.6 81.7 82.4 81.5 79.8 80.7

4.6 4.0 4.5 4.0 4.8 5.2 3.6 3.6

Waikato Region Thames-Coromandel District Hamilton City Waipa District

72.5 .. .. ..

78.5 .. .. ..

6.0 .. .. ..

74.3 74.5 74.7 74.1

80.0 80.9 80.2 78.9

5.7 6.4 5.5 4.8

75.9 77.0 76.7 76.1

81.0 82.9 81.9 80.4

5.1 5.9 5.2 4.3

Bay of Plenty Region Western Bay of Plenty District Tauranga District Rotorua District Whakatane District

72.5 .. .. .. ..

78.0 .. .. .. ..

5.5 .. .. .. ..

73.0 73.4 75.0 71.7 72.5

79.2 80.8 80.4 78.1 76.8

6.2 7.4 5.4 6.5 4.3

75.4 75.7 76.7 74.0 74.4

80.5 81.9 82.5 78.5 78.2

5.2 6.2 5.8 4.5 3.9

Gisborne Region Gisborne District

71.3 ..

76.5 ..

5.2 ..

70.7 70.7

76.4 76.4

5.7 5.7

72.6 72.6

78.9 78.9

6.3 6.3

Hawke's Bay Region Hastings District Napier City

71.7 .. ..

78.1 .. ..

6.4 .. ..

73.3 73.5 73.4

78.9 78.5 79.7

5.6 5.1 6.3

75.4 75.9 75.5

79.8 80.5 80.1

4.4 4.6 4.6

Taranaki Region New Plymouth District

72.3 ..

78.6 ..

6.3 ..

74.9 75.2

80.3 80.7

5.4 5.5

75.9 76.5

80.6 81.0

4.6 4.5

Manawatu-Wanganui Region Wanganui District Palmerston North City Horowhenua District Kapiti Coast District

72.2 .. .. .. ..

77.7 .. .. .. ..

5.5 .. .. .. ..

73.8 72.5 75.5 72.0 74.8

79.0 78.4 79.7 77.2 81.6

5.3 5.9 4.2 5.1 6.8

75.2 74.3 77.5 73.4 77.6

79.9 78.5 81.7 77.8 82.3

4.7 4.2 4.2 4.5 4.6

Wellington Region Porirua City Upper Hutt City Lower Hutt City Wellington City

72.9 .. .. .. ..

78.8 .. .. .. ..

5.9 .. .. .. ..

74.8 72.2 74.4 74.5 75.4

79.9 77.2 78.4 78.9 81.2

5.2 5.1 4.0 4.3 5.7

76.9 73.2 76.9 76.3 78.0

81.6 79.7 80.2 80.9 82.5

4.8 6.6 3.3 4.7 4.5

Tasman Region Tasman District

.. ..

.. ..

.. ..

74.8 74.8

80.6 80.6

5.8 5.8

77.2 77.2

82.0 82.0

4.8 4.8

Nelson Region Nelson City

.. ..

.. ..

.. ..

75.8 75.8

79.4 79.4

3.6 3.6

76.1 76.1

81.4 81.4

5.4 5.4

Marlborough Region Marlborough District

.. ..

.. ..

.. ..

74.4 74.4

79.6 79.6

5.2 5.2

76.8 76.8

80.6 80.6

3.8 3.8

West Coast Region

70.4

77.1

6.7

72.3

78.4

6.0

74.2

81.4

7.1

Canterbury Region Christchurch City Timaru District

73.2 .. ..

79.4 .. ..

6.2 .. ..

75.0 74.8 74.4

80.4 80.2 80.2

5.4 5.4 5.8

77.0 77.1 75.9

82.2 82.0 80.6

5.1 4.9 4.8

Otago Region Dunedin City

73.1 ..

79.0 ..

5.9 ..

74.7 74.3

80.4 79.9

5.7 5.7

76.8 76.6

81.7 81.3

4.8 4.7

Southland Region Invercargill City

71.4 ..

77.9 ..

6.5 ..

73.3 73.5

79.0 78.4

5.7 5.0

74.5 73.2

80.1 79.2

5.6 6.0

North Island(3)

..

..

..

74.4

79.7

5.3

76.4

81.2

4.8

South Island(4)

..

..

..

74.7

80.2

5.5

76.6

81.7

5.1

72.8

78.7

5.9

74.4

79.8

5.4

76.5

81.4

4.9

NEW ZEALAND(5)(6)

(1) There are two territorial authorities in this table which straddle regional council boundaries: Franklin and Rotorua districts. These territorial authorities are listed under the region which they are most closely associated with. (2) Life expectancies for 1990–1992 are not directly comparable to life expectancies for 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 because of differences in methodology. Tasman, Nelson and Marlborough regions were combined for 1990–1992 data, with life expectancies at birth of 74.3 and 80.3 years for males and females, respectively. (3) Sum of North Island regions. (4) Sum of South Island regions. (5) Includes North Island and South Island regions plus areas not included in a region (eg Chatham Islands Territory). (6) Data from abridged life tables. These may differ to data from complete life tables.

36

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Figure 4.03

Male and Female Life Expectancy at Birth

81

Regional council 1990–1992

Female (years of life)

Tasman/Nelson/ Marlborough

80

Canterbury Auckland Otago NEW ZEALAND Wellington Taranaki Waikato Northland Hawke's Bay Bay of Plenty Southland ManawatuWanganui West Coast

79

78 77

Gisborne 76 70

71

72 73 Male (years of life)

74

75

Figure 4.04

Male and Female Life Expectancy at Birth

81

Regional council 1995–1997

Female (years of life)

Tasman Canterbury Auckland Waikato Wellington NEW ZEALAND Marlborough Nelson Bay of Plenty Southland ManawatuHawke's Bay Wanganui Northland West Coast Otago Taranaki

80 79 78 77 Gisborne 76 70

71

72

73

74

75

76

Male (years of life)

Figure 4.05

Male and Female Life Expectancy at Birth Regional council 2000–2002 83

Female (years of life) Canterbury Otago

82

Auckland

Tasman Wellington Nelson West Coast NEW ZEALAND Waikato Marlborough Bay of Plenty Taranaki

81 Northland

80

Southland ManawatuWanganui

79

Hawke's Bay

Gisborne

78 72

73

74

75 Male (years of life)

37

76

77

78

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Regional life expectancy at age 65 years The 2000–2002 life tables indicate that having reached the age of 65 years, New Zealanders can, on average, expect to live a further 16.8 years for males and 20.2 years for females (table 4.02). Only four regions had both male and female life expectancy at age 65 years above the national average: Auckland (17.4 and 20.8 years), Tasman (17.1 and 20.9 years), Nelson (17.1 and 20.7 years) and Canterbury (17.1 and 20.6 years). Between the periods 1995–1997 and 2000–2002, life expectancy at age 65 years in New Zealand improved by 1.2 years for males and 1.0 year for females. Almost all regions experienced life expectancy gains over this period, although the size of the gain varied significantly. Auckland, Wellington, Tasman and Canterbury were the only regions to experience increases greater than the national average for both males and females.

38

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Table 4.02

Life Expectancy at Age 65 Years Regional councils and selected territorial authorities 1990–1992, 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 Regional Council / Territorial Authority(1)

1990–1992(2) Male Female F-M

Male

1995–1997 Female

F-M

Male

2000–2002 Female

F-M

Years of life Northland Region Far North District Whangarei District

14.8 .. ..

18.6 .. ..

3.8 .. ..

15.3 14.8 15.6

18.8 18.4 18.9

3.5 3.6 3.3

15.7 15.4 16.1

19.8 19.9 20.0

4.1 4.5 3.9

Auckland Region Rodney District North Shore City Waitakere City Auckland City Manukau City Papakura District Franklin District

15.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

19.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

3.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

16.1 15.9 16.6 15.9 15.7 16.3 15.3 15.9

19.4 19.6 20.2 19.8 19.1 19.3 18.9 19.7

3.3 3.6 3.5 3.8 3.4 3.1 3.6 3.8

17.4 17.7 18.2 17.8 17.3 16.9 16.7 17.0

20.8 21.3 21.4 20.5 20.8 20.7 19.6 20.3

3.4 3.6 3.3 2.7 3.4 3.8 2.9 3.3

Waikato Region Thames-Coromandel District Hamilton City Waipa District

14.9 .. .. ..

18.8 .. .. ..

3.9 .. .. ..

15.7 15.8 15.8 15.1

19.8 20.1 19.8 19.4

4.1 4.3 3.9 4.3

16.7 16.8 17.0 16.7

20.1 20.6 20.8 19.5

3.4 3.8 3.8 2.9

Bay of Plenty Region Western Bay of Plenty District Tauranga District Rotorua District Whakatane District

15.2 .. .. .. ..

18.6 .. .. .. ..

3.4 .. .. .. ..

15.3 15.9 15.9 14.2 15.2

19.1 19.8 20.1 18.2 17.9

3.9 3.9 4.2 4.0 2.7

16.4 16.8 17.3 15.3 15.4

20.2 20.7 21.2 19.0 19.0

3.8 3.9 4.0 3.7 3.5

Gisborne Region Gisborne District

14.2 ..

18.1 ..

3.9 ..

13.8 13.8

17.5 17.5

3.7 3.7

14.6 14.6

18.7 18.7

4.1 4.1

Hawke's Bay Region Hastings District Napier City

14.2 .. ..

18.6 .. ..

4.4 .. ..

15.3 15.5 15.0

19.1 18.7 19.9

3.8 3.2 4.8

16.6 16.6 16.6

19.3 19.7 19.4

2.7 3.0 2.8

Taranaki Region New Plymouth District

14.7 ..

18.6 ..

3.9 ..

16.1 15.9

19.9 19.9

3.8 4.0

16.9 17.3

19.8 20.0

3.0 2.7

Manawatu-Wanganui Region Wanganui District Palmerston North City Horowhenua District Kapiti Coast District

14.2 .. .. .. ..

18.1 .. .. .. ..

3.9 .. .. .. ..

15.1 14.9 16.0 14.1 15.1

18.9 18.5 19.2 17.9 20.3

3.7 3.6 3.2 3.7 5.2

16.2 16.1 17.3 14.7 17.5

19.5 19.2 20.3 18.2 20.9

3.3 3.1 3.0 3.5 3.5

Wellington Region Porirua City Upper Hutt City Lower Hutt City Wellington City

14.8 .. .. .. ..

18.4 .. .. .. ..

3.6 .. .. .. ..

15.6 14.5 14.8 15.7 15.7

19.0 17.1 17.5 18.3 19.6

3.4 2.6 2.7 2.6 3.9

16.8 15.1 16.6 16.5 17.2

20.1 18.9 18.7 19.9 20.1

3.3 3.8 2.1 3.5 2.9

Tasman Region Tasman District

.. ..

.. ..

.. ..

15.8 15.8

18.9 18.9

3.2 3.2

17.1 17.1

20.9 20.9

3.8 3.8

Nelson Region Nelson City

.. ..

.. ..

.. ..

16.5 16.5

18.6 18.6

2.2 2.2

17.1 17.1

20.7 20.7

3.6 3.6

Marlborough Region Marlborough District

.. ..

.. ..

.. ..

15.2 15.2

18.9 18.9

3.8 3.8

16.8 16.8

19.5 19.5

2.6 2.6

West Coast Region

13.5

17.0

3.5

14.1

18.1

4.0

15.2

20.0

4.7

Canterbury Region Christchurch City Timaru District

14.7 .. ..

18.4 .. ..

3.7 .. ..

15.6 15.6 15.0

19.3 19.3 18.6

3.7 3.7 3.6

17.1 17.0 16.6

20.6 20.4 19.6

3.5 3.4 3.0

Otago Region Dunedin City

14.4 ..

18.1 ..

3.7 ..

15.5 15.2

19.6 19.2

4.1 4.0

16.7 16.5

20.0 19.7

3.3 3.2

Southland Region Invercargill City

13.7 ..

17.6 ..

3.9 ..

14.4 14.5

18.7 18.3

4.3 3.7

15.5 14.5

19.0 18.1

3.4 3.6

North Island(3)

..

..

..

15.7

19.2

3.6

16.8

20.2

3.4

South Island(4)

..

..

..

15.5

19.2

3.8

16.8

20.2

3.5

14.8

18.6

3.8

15.6

19.2

3.6

16.8

20.2

3.4

NEW ZEALAND(5)(6)

(1) There are two territorial authorities in this table which straddle regional council boundaries: Franklin and Rotorua districts. These territorial authorities are listed under the region which they are most closely associated with. (2) Life expectancies for 1990–1992 are not directly comparable to life expectancies for 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 because of differences in methodology. Tasman, Nelson and Marlborough regions were combined for 1990–1992 data, with life expectancies at age 65 years of 15.4 and 19.4 years for males and females, respectively. (3) Sum of North Island regions. (4) Sum of South Island regions. (5) Includes North Island and South Island regions plus areas not included in a region (eg Chatham Islands Territory). (6) Data from abridged life tables. These may differ to data from complete life tables.

39

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Territorial authority life expectancy at birth For the first time, abridged life tables have been derived for territorial authorities. There are 35 territorial authority areas where death and population numbers are considered sufficient to produce reliable life tables for 1995–1997 and 2000–2002. Nevertheless, because of fluctuations in death and population numbers, these abridged life tables should be interpreted with caution. The 2000–2002 life tables indicate that 12 of the 35 territorial authorities had higher life expectancy at birth than the national average for both males and females. These 12 territorial authorities include seven cities (North Shore, Waitakere, Auckland, Hamilton, Palmerston North, Wellington and Christchurch) and five districts (Rodney, Thames-Coromandel, Tauranga, Kapiti Coast and Tasman). A similar pattern was observed for the 1995–1997 period, although females in Palmerston North City experienced slightly lower life expectancy than the national average. New Plymouth District also had life expectancy above the national average for males and females in the 1995–1997 period. Possible reasons for the variations in mortality and life expectancy are discussed in ‘Possible causal factors’ below. Figure 4.06

Life Expectancy at Birth Selected territorial authorities 2000–2002

Male Far North Di Whangarei Di Rodney Di North Shore Ci Waitakere Ci Auckland Ci Manukau Ci Papakura Di Franklin Di Thames-Coromandel Di Hamilton Ci Waipa Di Western Bay of Plenty Di Tauranga Di Rotorua Di Whakatane Di Gisborne Di Hastings Di Napier Ci New Plymouth Di Wanganui Di Palmerston North Ci Horowhenua Di Kapiti Coast Di Porirua Ci Upper Hutt Ci Lower Hutt Ci Wellington Ci Tasman Di Nelson Ci Marlborough Di Christchurch Ci Timaru Di Dunedin Ci Invercargill Ci

New Zealand Average

0

72

74

76

78

80

Years of life

Female

Far North Di Whangarei Di Rodney Di North Shore Ci Waitakere Ci Auckland Ci Manukau Ci Papakura Di Franklin Di Thames-Coromandel Di Hamilton Ci Waipa Di Western Bay of Plenty Di Tauranga Di Rotorua Di Whakatane Di Gisborne Di Hastings Di Napier Ci New Plymouth Di Wanganui Di Palmerston North Ci Horowhenua Di Kapiti Coast Di Porirua Ci Upper Hutt Ci Lower Hutt Ci Wellington Ci Tasman Di Nelson Ci Marlborough Di Christchurch Ci Timaru Di Dunedin Ci Invercargill Ci

New Zealand Average

0

76

78 80 Years of life

82

84

Note: Ci = City, Di = District.

Standardised death rates For many areas, death and population numbers are too small for constructing reliable abridged life tables, let alone complete life tables. Standardised death rates provide a summary measure of the mortality experience of each area, but also allow for the different age-sex composition of each area. It is important to note that standardised death rates have no direct meaning in themselves. They are meaningful only in comparison with similarly computed rates. The standardised death rate for an area, using the direct method of standardisation, indicates the overall death rate (per 1,000 population) that would have prevailed in a standard population if it experienced the age-and-sex-specific death rates of that area. 40

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Standardised death rates (SDRs) have been calculated for all regional councils and territorial authority areas within New Zealand for the periods 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 (table 4.03). The estimated resident population of New Zealand by age and sex at 30 June 1996 is used as the standard. Table 4.03

Standardised Death Rates Regional councils and territorial authorities 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 Regional Council / Territorial Authority(1)

1995 –1997

Regional Council / Territorial Authority(1)

2000 –2002

Deaths per 1,000 population Northland Region Far North District Whangarei District Kaipara District Auckland Region Rodney District North Shore City Waitakere City Auckland City Manukau City Papakura District Franklin District Waikato Region Thames-Coromandel District Hauraki District Waikato District Matamata-Piako District Hamilton City Waipa District Otorohanga District South Waikato District Waitomo District Taupo District Bay of Plenty Region Western Bay of Plenty District Tauranga District Rotorua District Whakatane District Kawerau District Opotiki District Gisborne Region Gisborne District Hawke's Bay Region Wairoa District Hastings District Napier City Central Hawke's Bay District Taranaki Region New Plymouth District Stratford District South Taranaki District Manawatu-Wanganui Region Ruapehu District Wanganui District Rangitikei District Manawatu District Palmerston North City Tararua District Horowhenua District

8.0 8.6 7.8 7.5 7.2 6.8 6.5 7.2 7.4 7.2 7.9 7.4 7.3 7.0 6.8 7.4 7.1 7.3 7.7 6.3 7.7 8.6 7.7 7.7 7.1 6.9 8.7 8.4 9.8 9.9 9.4 9.4 7.8 10.0 7.8 7.7 7.0 7.2 7.0 6.0 7.9 7.8 8.5 8.2 8.6 6.9 7.3 7.2 8.9

1995 –1997

2000 –2002

Deaths per 1,000 population 7.2 7.4 6.9 7.6 6.0 5.6 5.5 6.1 6.0 6.5 7.0 6.4 6.6 6.0 6.8 7.7 6.3 6.3 6.8 6.0 7.2 7.8 6.9 6.7 6.3 5.9 7.8 7.7 8.1 8.1 8.2 8.2 7.0 10.1 6.9 6.9 6.6 6.7 6.4 7.3 7.1 7.1 7.4 7.5 7.8 6.8 6.1 7.3 8.3

Wellington Region Kapiti Coast District Porirua City Upper Hutt City Lower Hutt City Wellington City Masterton District Carterton District South Wairarapa District Tasman Region Tasman District Nelson Region Nelson City Marlborough Region Marlborough District West Coast Region Buller District Grey District Westland District Canterbury Region Kaikoura District Hurunui District Waimakariri District Christchurch City Banks Peninsula District Selwyn District Ashburton District Timaru District Mackenzie District Waimate District Otago Region Waitaki District Central Otago District Queenstown-Lakes District Dunedin City Clutha District Southland Region Southland District Gore District Invercargill District

7.5 6.7 9.2 8.6 7.8 7.1 8.1 6.9 7.6 7.3 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.5 7.5 8.6 8.7 8.0 9.6 7.3 6.8 7.5 6.9 7.4 6.5 5.2 7.0 7.8 7.1 7.5 7.3 7.1 6.7 5.5 7.7 6.8 8.3 7.5 8.8 8.5

6.4 5.8 8.0 6.9 6.8 6.1 7.0 6.6 6.6 5.9 5.9 6.4 6.4 6.6 6.6 7.1 7.2 7.2 6.8 6.2 6.6 5.2 5.4 6.3 5.2 4.7 6.7 6.8 5.7 6.0 6.5 6.7 5.9 4.9 6.8 6.5 7.4 6.1 7.2 8.1

North Island(2) South Island(3)

7.5 7.4

6.5 6.4

..

7.1

7.5

6.5

Chatham Islands Territory(4) NEW ZEALAND

(1) There are eight territorial authorities in this table which straddle regional council boundaries: Franklin, Waitomo, Taupo, Rotorua, Stratford, Rangitikei, Tararua and Waitaki districts. These territorial authorities are listed under the region which they are most closely associated with. (2) The sum of the North Island regions. (3) The sum of the South Island regions. (4) Chatham Islands Territory is an area outside regions. Note: The rates have been standardised by the direct method of standardisation. The age and sex distribution of the estimated resident population of New Zealand at 30 June 1996 is used as the standard.

41

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Between 1995–1997 and 2000–2002, SDRs for New Zealand overall decreased from 7.5 deaths per 1,000 population to 6.5 deaths per 1,000 population. This decrease was reflected in all regions and almost all territorial authorities, with the exceptions of Kaipara, Hauraki, Waikato, Wairoa, Stratford and Tararua districts. SDRs for regions in 2000–2002 ranged from 5.9 to 8.2 deaths per 1,000 population, compared with a range of 7.2 to 9.4 deaths per 1,000 population in 1995–1997. Auckland, Tasman, Nelson and Canterbury regions had lower SDRs than the New Zealand average in both 1995–1997 and 2000– 2002. In contrast, Northland, Bay of Plenty, Gisborne, Hawke’s Bay, Manawatu-Wanganui, West Coast and Southland regions had SDRs above the national average for both periods. Among territorial authorities, SDRs ranged from 4.7 to 10.1 deaths per 1,000 population in 2000– 2002, compared with a range of 5.2 to 10.0 deaths per 1,000 population in 1995–1997. The SDRs, similar to the life expectancy results, suggest some geographic differences within regions. For example: ●









Auckland Region with a SDR of 6.0 in 2000–2002, includes territorial authorities with SDRs ranging from 5.5 (North Shore City) to 7.0 (Papakura District). Waikato Region with a SDR of 6.6 in 2000–2002, includes territorial authorities with SDRs ranging from 6.0 (Thames-Coromandel and Otorohanga districts) to 7.8 (Waitomo District). Bay of Plenty Region with a SDR of 6.7 in 2000–2002, includes territorial authorities with SDRs ranging from 5.9 (Tauranga District) to 8.1 (Kawerau and Opotiki districts). Manawatu-Wanganui Region with a SDR of 7.1 in 2000–2002, includes territorial authorities with SDRs ranging from 6.1 (Palmerston North City) to 8.3 (Horowhenua District). Canterbury Region with a SDR of 6.2 in 2000–2002, includes territorial authorities with SDRs ranging from 4.7 (Selwyn District) to 6.8 (Timaru District).

Possible causal factors The reasons for subnational differences in longevity and mortality are difficult to identify precisely and are probably due to a combination of interrelated factors including the proportion of the population who are Mäori, the proportion of the population who smoke (or have smoked), the proximity to health and hospital services, the degree of urbanisation and socio-economic factors. Compared with non-Mäori, life expectancy at birth for 2000–2002 was an estimated 8.2 years lower for Mäori males and 8.8 years lower for Mäori females at the national level. Based on ethnic population estimates at 30 June 2001 (Statistics New Zealand, 2003), the highest Mäori proportions at the regional level are in Gisborne (47 percent), Northland (33 percent), Bay of Plenty (29 percent) and Hawke’s Bay (24 percent). These are regions with male and female life expectancy at birth consistently below the national average for 1990–1992, 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 (figures 4.03 to 4.05). In contrast, the lowest Mäori proportions are in Otago (6 percent), Canterbury (7 percent), Tasman (7 percent) and Nelson (8 percent). These are regions which consistently appear to have life expectancies near or above the national average. At the territorial authority level, the pattern is similar. The highest Mäori proportions are in the districts of Kawerau (61 percent), Wairoa (60 percent), Opotiki (58 percent), Gisborne (47 percent), Far North (46 percent), Whakatane (43 percent), Ruapehu (40 percent), Waitomo (39 percent) and Rotorua (36 percent). In these areas, life expectancies are below the national average and/or standardised death rates are above the national average. The proportion of the population who smoke also appears to have a strong inverse correlation with life expectancy (figures 4.07 and 4.08). At the 1996 Census, the last census to ask a smoking question, the proportion of the population aged 15 years and over who were smoking regularly was lowest in Canterbury Region (22 percent of males and 20 percent of females). Nelson, Marlborough, Tasman and Auckland regions also had low proportions (23 percent of males and 20 percent of females). In contrast, the highest proportions were in Gisborne (30 percent of males and females), Northland (27 percent of males and females), West Coast (27 percent of males and 26 percent of females), Hawke’s Bay (27 percent of males and 26 percent of females) and Bay of Plenty (26 percent of males and females).

42

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Figure 4.07

Male Life Expectancy v Smoking Propensity Male life expectancy at birth (years), 2000–2002

80

Territorial authorities (R² = 0.73) Regional councils (R² = 0.89) New Zealand

79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 19

21 23 25 27 29 Percentage of 15+ male population smoking regularly, 1996 Census

31

Figure 4.08

Female Life Expectancy v Smoking Propensity 84

Female life expectancy at birth (years), 2000–2002 Territorial authorities (R² = 0.62) Regional councils (R² = 0.66) New Zealand

83 82 81 80 79 78 77 16

18 20 22 24 26 28 30 Percentage of 15+ female population smoking regularly, 1996 Census

32

Among territorial authorities, the lowest smoking proportions in 1996 were in North Shore City (20 percent of males and 16 percent of females), Selwyn District (21 percent of males and 17 percent of females), Waimakariri District (21 percent of males and 18 percent of females), Wellington City (21 percent of males and 18 percent of females), Rodney District (21 percent of males and 19 percent of females), Auckland City (23 percent of males and 18 percent of females), Palmerston North City (21 percent of males and 20 percent of females) and Banks Peninsula District (22 percent of males and 20 percent of females). In contrast, the highest proportions were in the districts of Kawerau (35 percent of males and 39 percent of females), Wairoa (33 percent of males and 35 percent of females), Opotiki (34 percent of males and 34 percent of females), Ruapehu (32 percent of males and 33 percent of females), Waitomo (30 percent of males and 32 percent of females), South Waikato (30 percent of males and 32 percent of females) and Far North (30 percent of males and 32 percent of females).

43

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

44

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Part 5:

Subnational methodology This part details the data and methods used to derive the subnational abridged life tables and standardised death rates presented in Part 4.

Data The data used to construct the 1995–1997 (revised) and 2000–2002 subnational abridged life tables and standardised death rates comprised: a. deaths registered in New Zealand of people resident in each area in the December years 1995– 1997 and 2000–2002, respectively, by age groups (0, 1–4, 5–9, 10–15, ... , 80–84, 85 and over) and sex b. live births registered in New Zealand to mothers resident in each area in the December years 1995–1997 and 2000–2002, respectively, by sex c. the estimated resident population of each area at 30 June 1996 and 30 June 2001, respectively, by age groups (1–4, 5–9, 10–15, ... , 80–84, 85 and over) and sex.

Deaths numerator The life tables were compiled from deaths registered, rather than deaths occurring, in each respective three-year period. Most death statistics refer to registrations rather than occurrences for a given time period, because of the time lag between when the death occurred and when it is registered. Hence, the number of death registrations can be confirmed before the number of death occurrences for a given time period. For periods of a year or more, the difference between registrations and occurrences is generally small, so death statistics referring to registrations are suitable for most purposes. An adjustment for address non-response among deaths was made. There was no response to the address question for less than 0.1 percent of deaths in 1995–1997 and 0.2 percent of deaths in 2000–2002.

Population denominator (exposed-to-risk population) The estimated resident population of each area at 30 June (the midpoint) of each period was used as the denominator to calculate death rates. The estimated resident populations at 30 June 1996 and 30 June 2001 were based on the census usually resident population counts at 5 March 1996 and 6 March 2001, respectively, and adjusted for: a. net census undercount b. residents temporarily overseas on census night c. births, deaths and net migration between census night and 30 June of the census year d. reconciliation wi th demographic estimates at ages 0–9 years. For more information about the estimated resident population, refer to “Information about the population estimates” on the Statistics New Zealand website (www.stats.govt.nz).

Derived rates The life tables were based on deaths averaged over three years. This is designed to reduce the impact of year-to-year statistical variations, particularly at younger ages where there may be a small number of deaths and at very old ages where the population at risk may be small. In some cases the subnational data does not enable death rates to be reliably estimated at all ages. The 1995–1997 life tables for regional council areas published in September 1998 have been revised. For all regions, the revision incorporates updated population estimates (at 30 June 1996) and an alternative method of smoothing death rates across age (Brass’ Logit System).

45

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

The construction of each abridged life table involved three stages. First, central death rates (mx) were calculated for each age interval, except the first year of life. Second, Brass’ Logit System was used to smooth age-specific death rates for all areas. Third, the smoothed rates were used to calculate a set of age-specific probabilities of death (qx), which were then used to derive other life table functions. The derivation of the mortality rate in the first year of life differed from all other ages and required special formulae as detailed below in ‘Age 0 years’.

Life table notation x

Exact age (eg exact age 5 corresponds to 5 years and 0 days).

lx

Number of people alive at exact age x from the original group of 100,000 (l0).

Lx

Average number of persons alive in the age interval x to x + 1.

dx

Number of deaths in the age interval x to x + 1.

qx

Probability that a person at exact age x dies within a year.

5 x

q

Probability that a person at exact age x dies within 5 years.

px

Probability that a person at exact age x lives another year.

p

Probability that a person at exact age x lives another 5 years.

mx

Central death rate for population in the age group x to x + 5.

5 x

s

Proportion of population in the age group x to x + 5 surviving another 5 years.

e0 x

Expected number of years of life remaining at exact age x.

5 x 5

46

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Age 0 years The probability of dying in the first year of life (q0) required special treatment because infant deaths are skewed towards the early part of this age. The following example shows the formula for calculating q0 for 2000–2002, where the denominator approximates the exposed-to-risk population:

Deaths (2000 − 2002, age 0) Live births (2000 − 2002)

q0 =

The value for q0 is then used to derive the following life table functions:

l 0 = 100,000

the radix of a life table

l1 = l 0 (1 − q 0 ) L0 = 0.15l 0 + 0.85l1

5

s0 =

where 0.85 and 0.15 approximate the proportion of infant deaths occurring in the first 6 months of life and second 6 months of life, respectively

L5 L0 + 4 L1 5

d 0 = l 0 .q 0

m0 =

d0 L0

Age 1–4 years The central death rate (mx) for this age group was calculated by dividing the average annual deaths of residents of each area by the estimated resident population of each area at the midpoint of the period. For 2000–2002:

4 m1 =

1 3

.Deaths (2000 − 2002, ages 1 − 4)

Population (30 June 2001, ages 1 − 4) 4. 4 m1

4

q1 =

4

d1 = l1 .q1

4

L1 = 2(l1 + l5 )

1 + 2. 4 m1

47

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Age 5–84 years The central death rates (mx) were calculated for each five-year age group by dividing the average annual deaths of residents of each area by the estimated resident population at the midpoint of the period. For 2000–2002: 1 3

5 mx =

.Deaths (2000 − 2002, ages x to x + 4)

Population (30 June 2001, ages x to x + 4)

for x = 5, 10, 15,..., 80

5. 5 m x

5

qx =

5

p x = 1− 5 q x

for x = 5, 10, 15,..., 80

1 + 2 12 . 5 m x

for x = 5, 10, 15,..., 80

l x + 5 = (1− 5 q x )l x

for x = 5, 10, 15,..., 80

5

d x = l x − l x +5

for x = 5, 10, 15,..., 80

5

L x = 2 12 (l x + l x + 5 )

for x = 5, 10, 15,..., 80

5

sx =

Lx + 5 5 Lx

for x = 5, 10, 15,..., 80

5

Age 85 years and over Data for those aged eighty-five years and over were combined into one age group. Because it is an open-ended interval, some unique formulae were required:

q85 = 1 d 85 = l85

L85 =

l85 m85

For all ages:

h

0

ex =

¦L i =0

x+i

for x = 0, 1, 5, 10, 15,..., 85 where x + h = 85.

lx

48

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Brass’ Logit System The Brass Logit technique enables the calculation of smooth abridged life tables for areas which have unreliable and/or zero age-specific death rates by adjusting the observed rates with reference to a standard life table. The technique does not alter the overall level of mortality, but the age-specific functions of the life table are smoothed. Essentially, the technique compares mortality between the area and a standard life table across ages, then a line of best fit is calculated to describe that relationship by age. The line of best fit is then used in conjunction with the standard life table to determine death rates for the small area life table. An example of observed and smoothed death rates is given in figure 5.01. For a more detailed description of Brass’ Logit System refer to Brass (1975). Figure 5.01

Observed and Smoothed Male Death Rates Franklin District 2000–2002

Deaths per 10,000 population

10,000

1,000

100 Observed 10 Smoothed 1 0

1-4

5-9

10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-24 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84 85+ Age group (years)

Note: There were no deaths registered for Franklin District for ages 1–14 years during 2000–2002.

The subnational abridged life tables for 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 presented in this report use the Brass Logit System and the complete life tables for New Zealand for 1995–1997 and 2000–2002, respectively, as the standard.

Abridged life tables compared with complete life tables There are small differences in life table measures derived from abridged and complete life tables (table 5.01). Abridged life tables use grouped age data and an open-ended upper age group. By comparison, complete life tables use single-year of age data. The abridged and complete life tables presented here also use different methods for smoothing death rates. Table 5.01

New Zealand Life Expectancy at Birth Abridged and complete life tables Period

Abridged Male

Complete

Female

Male

Female

Years of life 1995–1997 2000–2002

74.4 76.5

79.8 81.4

49

74.4 76.3

79.7 81.1

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Standardised death rates Standardised death rates provide a summary measure of the mortality experience of an area, while allowing for the different age-sex composition of each area. The standardised death rate for an area, using the direct method of standardisation, indicates the overall death rate (per 1,000 population) that would have prevailed in a standard population if it experienced the age-and-sex-specific death rates of that area. The standardised death rates presented in this report use the age and sex distribution of the estimated resident population of New Zealand at 30 June 1996 as the standard:

¦m P a

SDR = where

a

P

a

× 1,000

ma is the age-and-sex-specific death rate of the area Pa is the standard population at each age and sex P is the total standard population

50

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Glossary Age-specific A measure relating to an age group. Age-specific rates are commonly calculated for fertility, mortality, marriage, marriage dissolution and abortion.

Census night population count A count of all people present in a given area on a given census night. The census night population count of New Zealand includes visitors from overseas who are counted on census night, but excludes New Zealand residents who are temporarily overseas. For a subnational area, the count includes visitors from overseas and elsewhere in New Zealand (people who do not usually live in that area), but excludes residents of that area who are temporarily elsewhere on census night (people who usually live in that area but are absent).

Census usually resident population count A count of all people who usually live in a given area, and are present in New Zealand, on a given census night. The census usually resident population count of New Zealand excludes visitors from overseas and excludes New Zealand residents who are temporarily overseas. For a subnational area, the count excludes visitors from overseas and elsewhere in New Zealand (people who do not usually live in that area), but includes residents of that area who are temporarily elsewhere in New Zealand on census night (people who usually live in that area but are absent).

Cohort A group of people sharing a common demographic experience. For example, the 1900 birth cohort refers to the people who were born in the year 1900.

Death The permanent disappearance of all evidence of life at any time after live birth has taken place (postnatal cessation of vital functions without capability of resuscitation). This definition therefore excludes foetal deaths.

Death (mortality) rate The number of deaths relative to the exposed-to-risk population, often expressed as a rate per 1,000 population.

Estimated de facto population An estimate of all people present in a given area at a given date. The estimated de facto population of New Zealand includes all people present in New Zealand and counted by the census (census night population count). This estimate includes visitors from overseas who are counted on census night, but excludes New Zealand residents who are temporarily overseas. For a subnational area, the estimate includes visitors from overseas and elsewhere in New Zealand (people who do not usually live in that area), but excludes residents of that area who are temporarily elsewhere on census night (people who usually live in that area but are absent). The estimated de facto population at a given date after census includes births, deaths and net migration (arrivals less departures) of people during the period between census night and the given date. De facto population estimates are no longer produced. National population estimates were produced annually (reference date at 31 December) from 1936 to 1950 and quarterly (reference dates at 31 March, 30 June, 30 September and 31 December) from March 1951 to June 1997. Subnational population estimates were produced annually (reference date at 31 March) to 1995.

51

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Estimated resident population An estimate of all people who usually live in a given area at a given date. The estimated resident population of New Zealand includes all residents present in New Zealand and counted by the census (census usually resident population count), residents who are temporarily overseas (who are not included in the census), and an adjustment for residents missed or counted more than once by the census (net census undercount). Visitors from overseas are excluded. For a subnational area, the estimate excludes visitors from overseas and elsewhere in New Zealand (people who do not usually live in that area), but includes residents of that area who are temporarily elsewhere on census night (people who usually live in that area but are absent). The estimated resident population at a given date after census includes births, deaths and net migration (arrivals less departures) of residents during the period between census night and the given date. National population estimates are produced quarterly (reference dates at 31 March, 30 June, 30 September and 31 December) and subnational population estimates are produced annually (reference date at 30 June).

Ethnicity An ethnic group is made up of people who have some or all of the following characteristics: ● ●

a common proper name one or more elements of common culture which need not be specified, but may include religion, customs or language



unique community of interests, feelings and actions



a shared sense of common origins or ancestry



a common geographic origin.

This definition is based on the work of A Smith (1986) ‘The Ethnic Origins of Nations’. Ethnicity is self-perceived and people can belong to more than one ethnic group. People can identify with an ethnicity even though they may not be descended from ancestors with that ethnicity. Conversely, people may choose to not identify with an ethnicity even though they are descended from ancestors with that ethnicity. In the Census of Population and Dwellings, ethnicity is identified by the person completing the census form. In the case of births and deaths, ethnicity is identified by the person completing the registration form. For births this is usually the parent(s), while for deaths this is most likely to be the funeral director (on the advice of a family member).

Exposed-to-risk population People able to experience a particular event (eg birth, death, marriage, marriage dissolution) often because of specific characteristics (eg age, sex, marital status, geographic location).

Foetal death Death prior to the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception, irrespective of gestation, by either spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), induced abortion or stillbirth. Death is indicated by the fact that after such separation the foetus does not breathe or show any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord or definite movement of voluntary muscles.

Infant death The death of a child (who was born alive) before the age of one year.

Infant mortality rate The number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births.

52

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Life expectancy The average length of life remaining at a given age. As derived from a period life table, it assumes that a person experiences the age-specific mortality rates of a given period from the given age onwards. It represents the average longevity of the whole population and does not necessarily reflect the longevity of an individual.

Life expectancy at birth The average length of life of a birth cohort. As derived from a period life table, it is the average length of life of a newborn baby assuming they experience the age-specific mortality rates of a given period throughout their life. It represents the average longevity of the whole population and does not necessarily reflect the longevity of an individual.

Life table A tabular numerical representation of mortality and survivorship of a cohort of births at each age of life. It comprises an array of measures, including probabilities of death, probabilities of survival and life expectancies at various ages. A complete life table presents life table functions for each single year of age, while an abridged life table presents life table functions for age groups. Current, period or cross-sectional life tables are based on current mortality rates. These tables assume that as a cohort passes through life it experiences a given pattern of age-specific mortality rates which do not change from year to year. Although it is usually based on death rates from a real population during a particular period of time, these tables are a hypothetical model of mortality as they do not describe the real mortality which characterises a cohort as it ages. Cohort, longitudinal or generation life tables are based on the actual mortality experience of a particular cohort (eg all people born in the year 1900). These tables require data over many years, from infancy to the oldest age lived by the cohort (ie until the death of the last survivor).

Live birth The birth of a child, who breathes or shows any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord or definite movement of voluntary muscles, whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached. Each product of such a birth is considered liveborn. All liveborn infants should be registered and counted as such irrespective of gestation or whether alive or dead at the time of registration. If they die at any time following birth they should also be registered and counted as deaths.

Longevity Length of life.

Mäori ethnicity People who identify with the Mäori ethnicity with or without other ethnicities. Because ethnicity is selfperceived, people can identify with Mäori ethnicity even though they may not be descended from Mäori ancestors. Conversely, people may choose to not identify with Mäori ethnicity even though they are descended from Mäori ancestors.

Mean population The average number of people in an area during a given period, usually a year. This measure may be estimated in terms of a simple or weighted arithmetic mean of monthly or quarterly population during the reference period.

Mortality The death of individuals in a community.

53

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Net census undercount The difference between undercount and overcount. It is usually expressed as a percentage of what should have been the complete count rather than as a percentage of what was counted. The 1996 and 2001 post-enumeration surveys estimated net census undercount to be 1.6 ± 0.2 and 2.2 ± 0.3 percent, respectively (sample errors at the 95 percent level).

Non-Mäori ethnicity People identifying with an ethnicity excluding those who identified with New Zealand Mäori ethnicity.

Post-enumeration survey A sample survey to check the accuracy of coverage and/or response of another census or survey. A post-enumeration survey was conducted after each of the 1996 and 2001 Census of Population and Dwellings.

Radix The original size of the birth cohort of a life table. In this report it is set at 100,000 for convenience.

Resident population concept A statistical basis for a population in terms of those who usually live in a given area at a given time. The ‘census usually resident population count’ is a census measure, and the ‘estimated resident population’ is a demographic measure, of the resident population concept.

Resident temporarily overseas A person who usually lives in New Zealand but who is overseas for a period of less than 12 months. In census statistics, a resident temporarily overseas is a person who is identified on the census dwelling form as usually living in that dwelling but who is overseas for a period of less than 12 months. In external migration statistics, a resident temporarily overseas is a person who self-identifies on the arrival card that they live in New Zealand and have been away from New Zealand for less than 12 months.

Standardised death rate The overall death rate that would have prevailed in a standard population if it had experienced the age-specific (usually age-and-sex-specific) death rates of the population or area being studied. It is important to note that standardised death rates have no direct meaning in themselves. They are meaningful only in comparison with similarly computed rates.

Subnational Geographical units of a country (eg area units, territorial authorities, regional councils, urban areas) whose boundaries are defined for administrative, legal or statistical purposes.

54

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

References Ajwani S et al (2003). “Decades of Disparity: Ethnic mortality trends in New Zealand, 1980–1999”, Wellington: Ministry of Health and University of Otago, Public Health Intelligence Occasional Bulletin Number 16. www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/49ba80c00757b8804c256673001d47d0/ febdcf2d4baae173cc256d5c00137cae?OpenDocument [19 May 2004]. Arriaga E E (1984). “Measuring and Explaining the Change in Life Expectancies”, Demography, 21(1) 83–96. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2003a). 2002 Deaths, Canberra. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2003b). Yearbook Australia 2003, Canberra. Brass W (1975). Methods for Estimating Fertility and Mortality from Limited and Defective Data, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill. Census and Statistics Department (2004). Vital Events, www.info.gov.hk/censtatd/eng/hkstat/fas/pop/ vital_event_index.html [19 May 2004]. Department of Statistics (1986). “The Use of Cubic Spline Functions in the Derivation of the 1980–82 New Zealand Life Tables”, by R I Speirs, Demographic Trends Bulletin, 12–18. Government Actuary’s Department (2004). “Interim Life Tables”, www.gad.gov.uk/Life_Tables/ Interim_life_tables.htm [19 May 2004]. INSEE (2004). “Mortality”, www.insee.fr/en/ffc/pop_age3d.htm [19 May 2004]. Ministry of Health (1999). Taking The Pulse The 1996–97 New Zealand Health Survey, Wellington. National Center for Health Statistics (2004). United States Life Tables 2001, www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ nvsr/nvsr52/nvsr52_14.pdf [19 May 2004]. New Zealand Health and Information Service (2004). Mortality and Demographic Data 2000, Ministry of Health, Wellington. www.nzhis.govt.nz/publications/mortality.html [6 July 2004]. Statistics Bureau Japan (2003). Japan Statistical Yearbook 2004,Tokyo. Statistics Netherlands (2003). Statistical Yearbook of the Netherlands 2003, The Hague. Statistics New Zealand (1996). “Recent changes to ethnic statistics on births and deaths”, Demographic Trends 1996, 145–147. Statistics New Zealand (1997a). 1996 Census of Population and Dwellings: Ethnic Groups, Wellington. Statistics New Zealand (1997b). “New ethnic-specific birth and death rates”, Demographic Trends 1997, 153–155. Statistics New Zealand (2001). Definitions and Questionnaires, Statistics New Zealand, Wellington. Statistics New Zealand (2003). “Subnational Ethnic Population Projections”, www.stats.govt.nz/ population. Statistics New Zealand (2004a). “Glossary of Common Terms”, www.stats.govt.nz/domino/external/ omni/omni.nsf/wwwglsry [19 May 2004]. Statistics New Zealand (2004b). “Information about Deaths”, www.stats.govt.nz/domino/external/omni/ omni.nsf/outputs/Deaths [19 May 2004]. Statistics New Zealand (2004c). “Information about Life Tables”, www.stats.govt.nz/domino/external/ omni/omni.nsf/outputs/Life+Tables [19 May 2004]. Statistics Singapore (2004). Health, www.singstat.gov.sg/keystats/annual/yos/yos111.pdf [19 May 2004]. Statistics Sweden (2004). Average Life Expectancy 1751–2003, www.scb.se/templates/ tableOrChart_82717.asp [19 May 2004].

55

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Appendices

Additional tables Appendix 1 New Zealand life tables, 2000–2002 ............................................................................ 57 A1.1 Total male population life table, 2000–2002 ................................................................. 58 A1.2 Total female population life table, 2000–2002 .............................................................. 59 A1.3 Mäori male population life table, 2000–2002 ................................................................ 60 A1.4 Mäori female population life table, 2000–2002 ............................................................. 61 A1.5 Non-Mäori male population life table, 2000–2002 ........................................................ 62 A1.6 Non-Mäori female population life table, 2000–2002 ..................................................... 63

Appendix 2 New Zealand life tables, 1995–1997 (revised) ............................................................ 64 A2.1 Total male population life table, 1995–1997 ................................................................. 65 A2.2 Total female population life table, 1995–1997 .............................................................. 66 A2.3 Mäori male population life table, 1995–1997 ................................................................ 67 A2.4 Mäori female population life table, 1995–1997 ............................................................. 68 A2.5 Non-Mäori male population life table, 1995–1997 ........................................................ 69 A2.6 Non-Mäori female population life table, 1995–1997 ..................................................... 70

Appendix 3 Five-year age group mortality and survivorship rates, 1995–2002 ......................... 71 A3.1 Life table mortality and survivorship rates, by five-year age group, total, Mäori and non-Mäori populations, 2000–2002 ............................................................. 72 A3.2 Life table mortality and survivorship rates, by five-year age group, total, Mäori and non-Mäori populations, 1995–1997 ............................................................. 73

56

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Appendix 1

New Zealand life tables, 2000–2002

57

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002 Table A1.1

Total Male Population Life Table 2000–2002 Probability that a Male who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Number Dies of Life Number Lives Dying (years) Alive within Remaining Alive in in the Another at Exact a at Age x the Age Year Age Age Year Interval Interval

Probability that a Male who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Dies Number of Life Dying Lives Number (years) within Alive Remaining in the Another Alive in a at Exact at Age x Age Year the Age Year Age Interval Interval

Out of 100,000 Males Born

lx

x

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

Out of 100,000 Males Born

x

lx

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

0 1 2 3 4

100,000 99,392 99,321 99,289 99,260

99,501 99,357 99,305 99,275 99,248

608 71 32 29 25

0.99392 0.99929 0.99968 0.99971 0.99975

0.00608 0.00071 0.00032 0.00029 0.00025

76.33 75.79 74.84 73.87 72.89

50 51 52 53 54

94,061 93,738 93,385 92,997 92,571

93,900 93,562 93,191 92,784 92,337

323 353 388 426 468

0.99657 0.99623 0.99585 0.99542 0.99494

0.00343 0.00377 0.00415 0.00458 0.00506

29.23 28.32 27.43 26.54 25.66

5 6 7 8 9

99,235 99,214 99,197 99,182 99,169

99,225 99,206 99,190 99,176 99,163

21 17 15 13 13

0.99979 0.99983 0.99985 0.99987 0.99987

0.00021 0.00017 0.00015 0.00013 0.00013

71.91 70.92 69.94 68.95 67.95

55 56 57 58 59

92,103 91,587 91,019 90,395 89,707

91,845 91,303 90,707 90,051 89,329

516 568 624 688 757

0.99440 0.99380 0.99314 0.99239 0.99156

0.00560 0.00620 0.00686 0.00761 0.00844

24.79 23.93 23.07 22.23 21.39

10 11 12 13 14

99,156 99,142 99,126 99,105 99,074

99,149 99,134 99,116 99,090 99,051

14 16 21 31 46

0.99986 0.99984 0.99979 0.99969 0.99954

0.00014 0.00016 0.00021 0.00031 0.00046

66.96 65.97 64.98 64.00 63.02

60 61 62 63 64

88,950 88,117 87,199 86,189 85,080

88,534 87,658 86,694 85,635 84,472

833 918 1,010 1,109 1,217

0.99063 0.98958 0.98842 0.98713 0.98569

0.00937 0.01042 0.01158 0.01287 0.01431

20.57 19.76 18.97 18.18 17.41

15 16 17 18 19

99,028 98,966 98,888 98,798 98,700

98,997 98,927 98,843 98,749 98,648

62 78 90 98 104

0.99937 0.99921 0.99909 0.99901 0.99895

0.00063 0.00079 0.00091 0.00099 0.00105

62.05 61.08 60.13 59.19 58.25

65 66 67 68 69

83,863 82,530 81,073 79,486 77,761

83,197 81,802 80,280 78,624 76,827

1,333 1,457 1,587 1,725 1,869

0.98410 0.98235 0.98042 0.97830 0.97597

0.01590 0.01765 0.01958 0.02170 0.02403

16.66 15.92 15.20 14.49 13.80

20 21 22 23 24

98,596 98,489 98,378 98,264 98,148

98,543 98,434 98,321 98,206 98,090

107 111 114 116 117

0.99891 0.99887 0.99884 0.99882 0.99881

0.00109 0.00113 0.00116 0.00118 0.00119

57.31 56.37 55.43 54.49 53.56

70 71 72 73 74

75,892 73,873 71,700 69,369 66,879

74,883 72,787 70,535 68,124 65,555

2,019 2,173 2,331 2,490 2,648

0.97340 0.97058 0.96749 0.96410 0.96041

0.02660 0.02942 0.03251 0.03590 0.03959

13.13 12.47 11.83 11.22 10.61

25 26 27 28 29

98,031 97,913 97,796 97,679 97,562

97,972 97,855 97,738 97,621 97,503

118 117 117 117 118

0.99880 0.99880 0.99880 0.99880 0.99879

0.00120 0.00120 0.00120 0.00120 0.00121

52.62 51.68 50.75 49.81 48.87

75 76 77 78 79

64,231 61,430 58,483 55,399 52,186

62,831 59,957 56,941 53,793 50,518

2,801 2,947 3,084 3,213 3,336

0.95639 0.95202 0.94727 0.94201 0.93608

0.04361 0.04798 0.05273 0.05799 0.06392

10.03 9.47 8.92 8.39 7.87

30 31 32 33 34

97,444 97,326 97,208 97,089 96,970

97,385 97,267 97,149 97,030 96,910

118 118 119 119 121

0.99879 0.99879 0.99878 0.99877 0.99875

0.00121 0.00121 0.00122 0.00123 0.00125

47.92 46.98 46.04 45.09 44.15

80 81 82 83 84

48,850 45,399 41,844 38,208 34,525

47,125 43,622 40,026 36,367 32,682

3,451 3,555 3,636 3,683 3,687

0.92935 0.92170 0.91311 0.90360 0.89320

0.07065 0.07830 0.08689 0.09640 0.10680

7.38 6.90 6.44 6.01 5.59

35 36 37 38 39

96,849 96,725 96,598 96,467 96,330

96,787 96,662 96,533 96,399 96,258

124 127 131 137 144

0.99872 0.99869 0.99864 0.99858 0.99851

0.00128 0.00131 0.00136 0.00142 0.00149

43.20 42.26 41.31 40.37 39.42

85 86 87 88 89

30,838 27,195 23,642 20,224 16,985

29,017 25,419 21,933 18,605 15,478

3,643 3,553 3,418 3,239 3,014

0.88186 0.86935 0.85543 0.83985 0.82255

0.11814 0.13065 0.14457 0.16015 0.17745

5.20 4.83 4.49 4.16 3.86

40 41 42 43 44

96,186 96,035 95,875 95,704 95,520

96,111 95,955 95,790 95,612 95,421

151 160 171 184 198

0.99843 0.99833 0.99822 0.99808 0.99793

0.00157 0.00167 0.00178 0.00192 0.00207

38.48 37.54 36.60 35.67 34.74

90 91 92 93 94

13,971 11,233 8,816 6,749 5,039

12,602 10,025 7,783 5,894 4,354

2,738 2,417 2,067 1,710 1,371

0.80400 0.78481 0.76552 0.74656 0.72801

0.19600 0.21519 0.23448 0.25344 0.27199

3.58 3.33 3.11 2.91 2.72

45 46 47 48 49

95,322 95,108 94,878 94,628 94,356

95,215 94,993 94,753 94,492 94,209

214 230 250 272 295

0.99776 0.99758 0.99737 0.99713 0.99687

0.00224 0.00242 0.00263 0.00287 0.00313

33.81 32.88 31.96 31.04 30.13

95 96 97 98 99

3,668 2,600 1,792 1,200 779

3,134 2,196 1,496 990 635

1,068 808 592 421 289

0.70892 0.68935 0.66941 0.64917 0.62875

0.29108 0.31065 0.33059 0.35083 0.37125

2.56 2.40 2.26 2.13 2.00

100

490

394

192

0.60826 0.39174

1.89

58

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002 Table A1.2

Total Female Population Life Table 2000–2002 Probability that a Female who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Number Dies of Life Lives Number Dying (years) Alive within Remaining Alive in in the Another at Exact a at Age x Year the Age Age Age Year Interval Interval

Probability that a Female who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Dies Number of Life Dying Lives Number (years) within Alive Remaining in the Another Alive in a at Exact at Age x Age Year the Age Year Age Interval Interval

Out of 100,000 Females Born

lx

x

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

Out of 100,000 Females Born

x

lx

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

0 1 2 3 4

100,000 99,482 99,421 99,394 99,370

99,558 99,452 99,408 99,382 99,359

518 61 27 24 22

0.99482 0.99939 0.99973 0.99976 0.99978

0.00518 0.00061 0.00027 0.00024 0.00022

81.11 80.53 79.58 78.61 77.62

50 51 52 53 54

96,461 96,222 95,960 95,674 95,360

96,342 96,091 95,817 95,517 95,188

239 262 286 314 344

0.99752 0.99728 0.99702 0.99672 0.99639

0.00248 0.00272 0.00298 0.00328 0.00361

32.98 32.07 31.15 30.24 29.34

5 6 7 8 9

99,348 99,329 99,312 99,297 99,284

99,339 99,321 99,305 99,291 99,278

19 17 15 13 12

0.99981 0.99983 0.99985 0.99987 0.99988

0.00019 0.00017 0.00015 0.00013 0.00012

76.64 75.66 74.67 73.68 72.69

55 56 57 58 59

95,016 94,637 94,221 93,763 93,259

94,827 94,429 93,992 93,511 92,983

379 416 458 504 552

0.99601 0.99560 0.99514 0.99463 0.99408

0.00399 0.00440 0.00486 0.00537 0.00592

28.45 27.56 26.68 25.80 24.94

10 11 12 13 14

99,272 99,260 99,247 99,232 99,214

99,266 99,254 99,240 99,223 99,203

12 13 15 18 23

0.99988 0.99987 0.99985 0.99982 0.99977

0.00012 0.00013 0.00015 0.00018 0.00023

71.70 70.71 69.72 68.73 67.74

60 61 62 63 64

92,707 92,103 91,443 90,723 89,941

92,405 91,773 91,083 90,332 89,518

604 660 720 782 847

0.99348 0.99283 0.99213 0.99138 0.99058

0.00652 0.00717 0.00787 0.00862 0.00942

24.09 23.24 22.41 21.58 20.76

15 16 17 18 19

99,191 99,164 99,133 99,098 99,060

99,178 99,149 99,116 99,079 99,040

27 31 35 38 40

0.99973 0.99969 0.99965 0.99962 0.99960

0.00027 0.00031 0.00035 0.00038 0.00040

66.75 65.77 64.79 63.82 62.84

65 66 67 68 69

89,094 88,178 87,192 86,133 84,997

88,636 87,685 86,663 85,565 84,387

916 986 1,059 1,136 1,221

0.98972 0.98882 0.98786 0.98681 0.98564

0.01028 0.01118 0.01214 0.01319 0.01436

19.96 19.16 18.37 17.59 16.82

20 21 22 23 24

99,020 98,979 98,937 98,895 98,852

99,000 98,958 98,916 98,874 98,831

41 42 42 43 43

0.99959 0.99958 0.99958 0.99957 0.99957

0.00041 0.00042 0.00042 0.00043 0.00043

61.86 60.89 59.92 58.94 57.97

70 71 72 73 74

83,776 82,462 81,043 79,506 77,838

83,119 81,753 80,275 78,672 76,932

1,314 1,419 1,537 1,668 1,813

0.98431 0.98279 0.98104 0.97902 0.97671

0.01569 0.01721 0.01896 0.02098 0.02329

16.05 15.30 14.56 13.83 13.12

25 26 27 28 29

98,809 98,766 98,723 98,678 98,632

98,788 98,745 98,701 98,655 98,608

43 43 45 46 48

0.99956 0.99956 0.99954 0.99953 0.99951

0.00044 0.00044 0.00046 0.00047 0.00049

56.99 56.02 55.04 54.07 53.09

75 76 77 78 79

76,025 74,054 71,912 69,588 67,071

75,040 72,983 70,750 68,330 65,712

1,971 2,142 2,324 2,517 2,718

0.97408 0.97107 0.96768 0.96383 0.95948

0.02592 0.02893 0.03232 0.03617 0.04052

12.42 11.74 11.07 10.43 9.80

30 31 32 33 34

98,584 98,533 98,480 98,424 98,365

98,559 98,507 98,452 98,395 98,334

51 53 56 59 62

0.99948 0.99946 0.99943 0.99940 0.99937

0.00052 0.00054 0.00057 0.00060 0.00063

52.12 51.14 50.17 49.20 48.23

80 81 82 83 84

64,353 61,429 58,300 54,971 51,453

62,891 59,865 56,636 53,212 49,606

2,924 3,129 3,329 3,518 3,694

0.95457 0.94906 0.94290 0.93601 0.92820

0.04543 0.05094 0.05710 0.06399 0.07180

9.19 8.60 8.04 7.50 6.97

35 36 37 38 39

98,303 98,238 98,170 98,098 98,021

98,271 98,204 98,134 98,060 97,980

65 68 72 77 83

0.99934 0.99931 0.99927 0.99922 0.99915

0.00066 0.00069 0.00073 0.00078 0.00085

47.26 46.29 45.32 44.35 43.39

85 86 87 88 89

47,759 43,903 39,908 35,808 31,648

45,831 41,906 37,858 33,728 29,570

3,856 3,995 4,100 4,160 4,156

0.91927 0.90901 0.89726 0.88383 0.86868

0.08073 0.09099 0.10274 0.11617 0.13132

6.47 6.00 5.55 5.13 4.74

40 41 42 43 44

97,938 97,848 97,748 97,638 97,515

97,893 97,798 97,693 97,577 97,447

90 100 110 123 137

0.99908 0.99898 0.99887 0.99874 0.99860

0.00092 0.00102 0.00113 0.00126 0.00140

42.42 41.46 40.50 39.55 38.60

90 91 92 93 94

27,492 23,427 19,552 15,963 12,739

25,460 21,490 17,758 14,351 11,336

4,065 3,875 3,589 3,224 2,807

0.85214 0.83460 0.81644 0.79802 0.77967

0.14786 0.16540 0.18356 0.20198 0.22033

4.38 4.05 3.75 3.48 3.24

45 46 47 48 49

97,378 97,227 97,061 96,879 96,679

97,303 97,144 96,970 96,779 96,570

151 166 182 200 218

0.99845 0.99829 0.99812 0.99794 0.99774

0.00155 0.00171 0.00188 0.00206 0.00226

37.65 36.71 35.77 34.84 33.91

95 96 97 98 99

9,932 7,552 5,591 4,023 2,808

8,742 6,572 4,807 3,416 2,353

2,380 1,961 1,568 1,215 911

0.76042 0.74032 0.71946 0.69789 0.67573

0.23958 0.25968 0.28054 0.30211 0.32427

3.01 2.81 2.61 2.44 2.28

100

1,897

1,568

658

0.65307 0.34693

2.13

59

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002 Table A1.3

Mäori Male Population Life Table 2000–2002 Probability that a Male who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Number Dies of Life Lives Number Dying (years) Alive within Remaining Alive in in the Another at Exact a at Age x Year the Age Age Age Year Interval Interval

Probability that a Male who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Dies Number of Life Dying Lives Number (years) within Alive Remaining in the Another Alive in a at Exact at Age x Age Year the Age Year Age Interval Interval

Out of 100,000 Males Born

lx

x

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

Out of 100,000 Males Born

x

Lx

lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

0 1 2 3 4

100,000 99,163 99,066 99,018 98,976

99,339 99,115 99,042 98,997 98,958

837 97 48 42 36

0.99163 0.99902 0.99952 0.99958 0.99964

0.00837 0.00098 0.00048 0.00042 0.00036

68.99 68.57 67.64 66.67 65.70

50 51 52 53 54

89,823 89,040 88,175 87,223 86,179

89,432 88,608 87,699 86,701 85,609

783 865 952 1,044 1,140

0.99128 0.99028 0.98920 0.98803 0.98677

0.00872 0.00972 0.01080 0.01197 0.01323

23.04 22.24 21.46 20.68 19.93

5 6 7 8 9

98,940 98,909 98,882 98,859 98,839

98,925 98,896 98,871 98,849 98,831

31 27 23 20 17

0.99969 0.99973 0.99977 0.99980 0.99983

0.00031 0.00027 0.00023 0.00020 0.00017

64.72 63.74 62.76 61.78 60.79

55 56 57 58 59

85,039 83,799 82,455 81,005 79,446

84,419 83,127 81,730 80,226 78,611

1,240 1,344 1,450 1,559 1,671

0.98542 0.98396 0.98241 0.98075 0.97897

0.01458 0.01604 0.01759 0.01925 0.02103

19.19 18.47 17.76 17.07 16.39

10 11 12 13 14

98,822 98,807 98,791 98,770 98,738

98,815 98,799 98,781 98,754 98,713

15 16 21 32 50

0.99985 0.99984 0.99979 0.99968 0.99949

0.00015 0.00016 0.00021 0.00032 0.00051

59.80 58.81 57.82 56.83 55.85

60 61 62 63 64

77,775 75,992 74,098 72,092 69,975

76,884 75,045 73,095 71,034 68,861

1,783 1,894 2,006 2,117 2,228

0.97708 0.97507 0.97293 0.97063 0.96816

0.02292 0.02493 0.02707 0.02937 0.03184

15.73 15.09 14.46 13.85 13.26

15 16 17 18 19

98,688 98,613 98,514 98,396 98,264

98,651 98,564 98,455 98,330 98,193

75 99 118 132 142

0.99924 0.99900 0.99880 0.99866 0.99855

0.00076 0.00100 0.00120 0.00134 0.00145

54.87 53.92 52.97 52.03 51.10

65 66 67 68 69

67,747 65,408 62,960 60,404 57,744

66,578 64,184 61,682 59,074 56,364

2,339 2,448 2,556 2,660 2,760

0.96548 0.96257 0.95941 0.95596 0.95221

0.03452 0.03743 0.04059 0.04404 0.04779

12.68 12.11 11.56 11.03 10.52

20 21 22 23 24

98,122 97,972 97,817 97,660 97,501

98,047 97,895 97,739 97,581 97,421

150 155 157 159 161

0.99847 0.99842 0.99839 0.99837 0.99835

0.00153 0.00158 0.00161 0.00163 0.00165

50.18 49.25 48.33 47.41 46.48

70 71 72 73 74

54,984 52,133 49,199 46,198 43,151

53,559 50,666 47,699 44,675 41,617

2,851 2,934 3,001 3,047 3,069

0.94814 0.94372 0.93901 0.93404 0.92887

0.05186 0.05628 0.06099 0.06596 0.07113

10.02 9.54 9.08 8.64 8.21

25 26 27 28 29

97,340 97,178 97,014 96,847 96,677

97,259 97,096 96,931 96,762 96,590

162 164 167 170 175

0.99834 0.99831 0.99828 0.99824 0.99819

0.00166 0.00169 0.00172 0.00176 0.00181

45.56 44.63 43.71 42.78 41.86

75 76 77 78 79

40,082 37,018 33,987 31,018 28,137

38,550 35,503 32,503 29,578 26,754

3,064 3,031 2,969 2,881 2,767

0.92355 0.91812 0.91263 0.90713 0.90165

0.07645 0.08188 0.08737 0.09287 0.09835

7.80 7.41 7.02 6.65 6.28

30 31 32 33 34

96,502 96,323 96,138 95,948 95,751

96,413 96,231 96,043 95,850 95,649

179 185 190 197 204

0.99814 0.99808 0.99802 0.99795 0.99787

0.00186 0.00192 0.00198 0.00205 0.00213

40.93 40.01 39.08 38.16 37.24

80 81 82 83 84

25,370 22,731 20,207 17,764 15,387

24,051 21,469 18,986 16,576 14,251

2,639 2,524 2,443 2,377 2,272

0.89599 0.88895 0.87911 0.86619 0.85232

0.10401 0.11105 0.12089 0.13381 0.14768

5.91 5.53 5.16 4.80 4.47

35 36 37 38 39

95,547 95,336 95,116 94,886 94,643

95,442 95,226 95,001 94,765 94,514

211 220 230 243 258

0.99779 0.99769 0.99758 0.99744 0.99727

0.00221 0.00231 0.00242 0.00256 0.00273

36.32 35.39 34.47 33.56 32.64

85 86 87 88 89

13,115 10,984 9,026 7,266 5,721

12,050 10,005 8,146 6,494 5,060

2,131 1,958 1,760 1,545 1,323

0.83750 0.82172 0.80498 0.78730 0.76872

0.16250 0.17828 0.19502 0.21270 0.23128

4.16 3.86 3.59 3.34 3.11

40 41 42 43 44

94,385 94,107 93,804 93,472 93,105

94,246 93,956 93,638 93,289 92,901

278 303 332 367 408

0.99705 0.99678 0.99646 0.99607 0.99562

0.00295 0.00322 0.00354 0.00393 0.00438

31.73 30.82 29.92 29.02 28.14

90 91 92 93 94

4,398 3,295 2,402 1,700 1,167

3,847 2,849 2,051 1,434 971

1,103 893 702 533 392

0.74926 0.72898 0.70794 0.68621 0.66389

0.25074 0.27102 0.29206 0.31379 0.33611

2.90 2.70 2.52 2.35 2.19

45 46 47 48 49

92,697 92,242 91,733 91,164 90,529

92,470 91,988 91,449 90,847 90,176

455 509 569 635 706

0.99509 0.99448 0.99380 0.99304 0.99220

0.00491 0.00552 0.00620 0.00696 0.00780

27.26 26.39 25.53 24.69 23.86

95 96 97 98 99

775 497 307 182 104

636 402 245 143 81

278 190 125 78 47

0.64108 0.61788 0.59442 0.57085 0.54729

0.35892 0.38212 0.40558 0.42915 0.45271

2.05 1.92 1.80 1.69 1.59

100

57

44

27

0.52392 0.47608

1.48

60

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002 Table A1.4

Mäori Female Population Life Table 2000–2002 Probability that a Female who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Number Dies of Life Lives Number Dying (years) Alive within Remaining Alive in in the Another at Exact a at Age x Year the Age Age Age Year Interval Interval

Probability that a Female who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Dies Number of Life Dying Lives Number (years) within Alive Remaining in the Another Alive in a at Exact at Age x Age Year the Age Year Age Interval Interval

Out of 100,000 Females Born

lx

x

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

Out of 100,000 Females Born

x

lx

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

0 1 2 3 4

100,000 99,274 99,198 99,163 99,132

99,410 99,236 99,181 99,148 99,119

726 76 35 31 27

0.99274 0.99923 0.99965 0.99969 0.99973

0.00726 0.00077 0.00035 0.00031 0.00027

73.18 72.72 71.77 70.80 69.82

50 51 52 53 54

93,248 92,633 91,955 91,211 90,400

92,941 92,294 91,583 90,806 89,960

615 678 744 811 880

0.99341 0.99268 0.99191 0.99111 0.99027

0.00659 0.00732 0.00809 0.00889 0.00973

26.04 25.21 24.39 23.59 22.79

5 6 7 8 9

99,105 99,082 99,062 99,044 99,028

99,094 99,072 99,053 99,036 99,021

23 20 18 16 15

0.99977 0.99980 0.99982 0.99984 0.99985

0.00023 0.00020 0.00018 0.00016 0.00015

68.84 67.85 66.87 65.88 64.89

55 56 57 58 59

89,520 88,567 87,534 86,414 85,200

89,044 88,051 86,974 85,807 84,541

953 1,033 1,120 1,214 1,318

0.98935 0.98834 0.98721 0.98595 0.98453

0.01065 0.01166 0.01279 0.01405 0.01547

22.01 21.24 20.49 19.75 19.02

10 11 12 13 14

99,013 98,999 98,984 98,967 98,946

99,006 98,992 98,976 98,957 98,933

14 15 17 21 26

0.99986 0.99985 0.99983 0.99979 0.99974

0.00014 0.00015 0.00017 0.00021 0.00026

63.90 62.91 61.92 60.93 59.94

60 61 62 63 64

83,882 82,449 80,892 79,201 77,371

83,166 81,671 80,047 78,286 76,387

1,433 1,557 1,691 1,830 1,968

0.98292 0.98112 0.97910 0.97690 0.97457

0.01708 0.01888 0.02090 0.02310 0.02543

18.31 17.62 16.95 16.30 15.68

15 16 17 18 19

98,920 98,886 98,843 98,794 98,740

98,903 98,865 98,819 98,767 98,711

34 43 49 54 58

0.99966 0.99957 0.99950 0.99945 0.99941

0.00034 0.00043 0.00050 0.00055 0.00059

58.96 57.98 57.00 56.03 55.06

65 66 67 68 69

75,403 73,303 71,080 68,749 66,327

74,353 72,192 69,915 67,538 65,081

2,100 2,223 2,331 2,422 2,493

0.97215 0.96968 0.96721 0.96477 0.96242

0.02785 0.03032 0.03279 0.03523 0.03758

15.07 14.49 13.93 13.38 12.85

20 21 22 23 24

98,682 98,622 98,560 98,497 98,433

98,652 98,591 98,529 98,465 98,400

60 62 63 64 66

0.99939 0.99937 0.99936 0.99935 0.99933

0.00061 0.00063 0.00064 0.00065 0.00067

54.09 53.13 52.16 51.19 50.23

70 71 72 73 74

63,834 61,293 58,725 56,146 53,562

62,564 60,009 57,436 54,854 52,269

2,541 2,568 2,579 2,584 2,587

0.96020 0.95811 0.95608 0.95398 0.95171

0.03980 0.04189 0.04392 0.04602 0.04829

12.34 11.83 11.32 10.82 10.32

25 26 27 28 29

98,367 98,298 98,225 98,146 98,062

98,333 98,262 98,186 98,104 98,016

69 73 79 84 92

0.99930 0.99926 0.99920 0.99914 0.99906

0.00070 0.00074 0.00080 0.00086 0.00094

49.26 48.29 47.33 46.37 45.41

75 76 77 78 79

50,975 48,383 45,780 43,160 40,515

49,679 47,082 44,470 41,838 39,177

2,592 2,603 2,620 2,645 2,676

0.94916 0.94621 0.94277 0.93872 0.93396

0.05084 0.05379 0.05723 0.06128 0.06604

9.81 9.31 8.81 8.32 7.83

30 31 32 33 34

97,970 97,871 97,764 97,650 97,528

97,921 97,818 97,707 97,589 97,463

99 107 114 122 130

0.99899 0.99891 0.99883 0.99875 0.99867

0.00101 0.00109 0.00117 0.00125 0.00133

44.45 43.49 42.54 41.59 40.64

80 81 82 83 84

37,839 35,127 32,367 29,544 26,659

36,483 33,747 30,956 28,102 25,214

2,712 2,760 2,823 2,885 2,891

0.92833 0.92142 0.91278 0.90236 0.89157

0.07167 0.07858 0.08722 0.09764 0.10843

7.35 6.88 6.42 5.99 5.58

35 36 37 38 39

97,398 97,262 97,119 96,968 96,808

97,330 97,191 97,044 96,888 96,723

136 143 151 160 171

0.99860 0.99853 0.99845 0.99835 0.99823

0.00140 0.00147 0.00155 0.00165 0.00177

39.69 38.75 37.80 36.86 35.92

85 86 87 88 89

23,768 20,913 18,138 15,485 12,995

22,341 19,526 16,812 14,240 11,850

2,855 2,775 2,653 2,490 2,291

0.87989 0.86729 0.85375 0.83922 0.82371

0.12011 0.13271 0.14625 0.16078 0.17629

5.20 4.84 4.50 4.19 3.89

40 41 42 43 44

96,637 96,450 96,244 96,013 95,753

96,544 96,347 96,129 95,883 95,605

187 206 231 260 297

0.99807 0.99786 0.99760 0.99729 0.99690

0.00193 0.00214 0.00240 0.00271 0.00310

34.98 34.05 33.12 32.20 31.29

90 91 92 93 94

10,704 8,640 6,823 5,261 3,954

9,672 7,732 6,042 4,608 3,423

2,064 1,817 1,562 1,307 1,063

0.80719 0.78966 0.77113 0.75160 0.73111

0.19281 0.21034 0.22887 0.24840 0.26889

3.62 3.37 3.13 2.91 2.71

45 46 47 48 49

95,456 95,117 94,731 94,293 93,800

95,287 94,924 94,512 94,047 93,524

339 386 438 493 552

0.99645 0.99594 0.99538 0.99477 0.99411

0.00355 0.00406 0.00462 0.00523 0.00589

30.38 29.49 28.61 27.74 26.88

95 96 97 98 99

2,891 2,052 1,410 936 599

2,472 1,731 1,173 768 484

839 642 474 337 230

0.70968 0.68735 0.66418 0.64024 0.61560

0.29032 0.31265 0.33582 0.35976 0.38440

2.52 2.34 2.18 2.04 1.90

100

369

294

151

0.59034 0.40966

1.77

61

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002 Table A1.5

Non-Mäori Male Population Life Table 2000–2002 Probability that a Male who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Number Dies of Life Lives Number Dying (years) Alive within Remaining Alive in in the Another at Exact a at Age x Year the Age Age Age Year Interval Interval

Probability that a Male who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Dies Number of Life Dying Lives Number (years) within Alive Remaining in the Another Alive in a at Exact at Age x Age Year the Age Year Age Interval Interval

Out of 100,000 Males Born

lx

x

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

Out of 100,000 Males Born

x

lx

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

0 1 2 3 4

100,000 99,482 99,422 99,396 99,373

99,564 99,452 99,409 99,385 99,363

518 60 26 23 20

0.99482 0.99940 0.99974 0.99977 0.99980

0.00518 0.00060 0.00026 0.00023 0.00020

77.15 76.56 75.60 74.62 73.64

50 51 52 53 54

94,784 94,511 94,210 93,878 93,512

94,648 94,361 94,044 93,695 93,310

273 301 332 366 405

0.99712 0.99682 0.99648 0.99610 0.99567

0.00288 0.00318 0.00352 0.00390 0.00433

29.74 28.82 27.91 27.01 26.11

5 6 7 8 9

99,353 99,335 99,320 99,307 99,295

99,344 99,328 99,314 99,301 99,289

18 15 13 12 12

0.99982 0.99985 0.99987 0.99988 0.99988

0.00018 0.00015 0.00013 0.00012 0.00012

72.65 71.67 70.68 69.69 68.69

55 56 57 58 59

93,107 92,659 92,163 91,616 91,010

92,883 92,411 91,890 91,313 90,675

448 496 547 606 670

0.99519 0.99465 0.99406 0.99339 0.99264

0.00481 0.00535 0.00594 0.00661 0.00736

25.22 24.34 23.47 22.61 21.76

10 11 12 13 14

99,283 99,270 99,254 99,233 99,202

99,277 99,262 99,244 99,218 99,180

13 16 21 31 44

0.99987 0.99984 0.99979 0.99969 0.99956

0.00013 0.00016 0.00021 0.00031 0.00044

67.70 66.71 65.72 64.74 63.76

60 61 62 63 64

90,340 89,598 88,776 87,865 86,855

89,969 89,187 88,321 87,360 86,296

742 822 911 1,010 1,118

0.99179 0.99083 0.98974 0.98851 0.98713

0.00821 0.00917 0.01026 0.01149 0.01287

20.91 20.08 19.26 18.46 17.67

15 16 17 18 19

99,158 99,101 99,032 98,952 98,863

99,130 99,067 98,992 98,908 98,815

57 69 80 89 96

0.99943 0.99930 0.99919 0.99910 0.99903

0.00057 0.00070 0.00081 0.00090 0.00097

62.78 61.82 60.86 59.91 58.96

65 66 67 68 69

85,737 84,501 83,137 81,636 79,988

85,119 83,819 82,387 80,812 79,086

1,236 1,364 1,501 1,648 1,804

0.98558 0.98386 0.98194 0.97981 0.97745

0.01442 0.01614 0.01806 0.02019 0.02255

16.89 16.13 15.39 14.66 13.95

20 21 22 23 24

98,767 98,666 98,561 98,455 98,348

98,717 98,614 98,508 98,402 98,294

101 105 106 107 108

0.99898 0.99894 0.99892 0.99891 0.99890

0.00102 0.00106 0.00108 0.00109 0.00110

58.02 57.08 56.14 55.20 54.26

70 71 72 73 74

78,184 76,218 74,082 71,774 69,291

77,201 75,150 72,928 70,533 67,962

1,966 2,136 2,308 2,483 2,658

0.97485 0.97198 0.96884 0.96540 0.96164

0.02515 0.02802 0.03116 0.03460 0.03836

13.26 12.59 11.94 11.31 10.70

25 26 27 28 29

98,240 98,132 98,025 97,918 97,812

98,186 98,079 97,972 97,865 97,760

108 107 107 106 105

0.99890 0.99891 0.99891 0.99892 0.99893

0.00110 0.00109 0.00109 0.00108 0.00107

53.32 52.38 51.43 50.49 49.54

75 76 77 78 79

66,633 63,805 60,815 57,673 54,387

65,219 62,310 59,244 56,030 52,676

2,828 2,990 3,142 3,286 3,423

0.95756 0.95314 0.94833 0.94302 0.93706

0.04244 0.04686 0.05167 0.05698 0.06294

10.10 9.53 8.97 8.43 7.91

30 31 32 33 34

97,707 97,603 97,500 97,397 97,292

97,655 97,552 97,449 97,345 97,239

104 103 103 105 107

0.99894 0.99894 0.99894 0.99892 0.99890

0.00106 0.00106 0.00106 0.00108 0.00110

48.60 47.65 46.70 45.75 44.80

80 81 82 83 84

50,964 47,411 43,742 39,980 36,160

49,188 45,577 41,861 38,070 34,244

3,553 3,669 3,762 3,820 3,832

0.93029 0.92261 0.91399 0.90445 0.89402

0.06971 0.07739 0.08601 0.09555 0.10598

7.41 6.93 6.47 6.03 5.62

35 36 37 38 39

97,185 97,075 96,962 96,845 96,723

97,130 97,019 96,904 96,784 96,659

110 113 117 122 128

0.99887 0.99884 0.99879 0.99874 0.99868

0.00113 0.00116 0.00121 0.00126 0.00132

43.84 42.89 41.94 40.99 40.04

85 86 87 88 89

32,328 28,534 24,828 21,257 17,868

30,431 26,681 23,043 19,563 16,289

3,794 3,706 3,571 3,389 3,159

0.88265 0.87011 0.85616 0.84055 0.82322

0.11735 0.12989 0.14384 0.15945 0.17678

5.22 4.85 4.50 4.17 3.87

40 41 42 43 44

96,595 96,461 96,320 96,171 96,013

96,528 96,391 96,246 96,092 95,929

134 141 149 158 168

0.99861 0.99854 0.99845 0.99836 0.99825

0.00139 0.00146 0.00155 0.00164 0.00175

39.10 38.15 37.20 36.26 35.32

90 91 92 93 94

14,709 11,835 9,295 7,121 5,320

13,272 10,565 8,208 6,221 4,598

2,874 2,540 2,174 1,801 1,444

0.80464 0.78542 0.76610 0.74711 0.72853

0.19536 0.21458 0.23390 0.25289 0.27147

3.59 3.34 3.12 2.91 2.73

45 46 47 48 49

95,845 95,665 95,471 95,261 95,033

95,755 95,568 95,366 95,147 94,909

180 194 210 228 249

0.99812 0.99797 0.99780 0.99761 0.99738

0.00188 0.00203 0.00220 0.00239 0.00262

34.38 33.45 32.51 31.58 30.66

95 96 97 98 99

3,876 2,750 1,897 1,271 826

3,313 2,324 1,584 1,049 673

1,126 853 626 445 306

0.70941 0.68981 0.66984 0.64957 0.62912

0.29059 0.31019 0.33016 0.35043 0.37088

2.56 2.41 2.26 2.13 2.01

100

520

418

204

0.60860 0.39140

1.90

62

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002 Table A1.6

Non-Mäori Female Population Life Table 2000–2002 Probability that a Female who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Number Dies of Life Number Lives Dying (years) Alive within Remaining Alive in in the Another at Exact a at Age x Year the Age Age Age Year Interval Interval

Probability that a Female who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Dies Number of Life Dying Lives Number (years) within Alive Remaining in the Another Alive in a at Exact at Age x Age Year the Age Year Age Interval Interval

Out of 100,000 Females Born

lx

x

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

Out of 100,000 Females Born

x

lx

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

0 1 2 3 4

100,000 99,562 99,508 99,482 99,459

99,616 99,535 99,495 99,471 99,449

438 54 26 23 20

0.99562 0.99946 0.99974 0.99977 0.99980

0.00438 0.00054 0.00026 0.00023 0.00020

81.94 81.30 80.34 79.36 78.38

50 51 52 53 54

97,019 96,820 96,601 96,360 96,095

96,920 96,711 96,481 96,228 95,949

199 219 241 265 292

0.99795 0.99774 0.99751 0.99725 0.99696

0.00205 0.00226 0.00249 0.00275 0.00304

33.54 32.61 31.68 30.76 29.84

5 6 7 8 9

99,439 99,421 99,406 99,393 99,382

99,430 99,414 99,400 99,388 99,377

18 15 13 11 10

0.99982 0.99985 0.99987 0.99989 0.99990

0.00018 0.00015 0.00013 0.00011 0.00010

77.40 76.41 75.42 74.43 73.44

55 56 57 58 59

95,803 95,481 95,125 94,732 94,299

95,642 95,303 94,929 94,516 94,061

322 356 393 433 476

0.99664 0.99627 0.99587 0.99543 0.99495

0.00336 0.00373 0.00413 0.00457 0.00505

28.93 28.03 27.13 26.24 25.36

10 11 12 13 14

99,372 99,362 99,351 99,338 99,322

99,367 99,357 99,345 99,330 99,312

10 11 13 16 20

0.99990 0.99989 0.99987 0.99984 0.99980

0.00010 0.00011 0.00013 0.00016 0.00020

72.45 71.45 70.46 69.47 68.48

60 61 62 63 64

93,823 93,300 92,727 92,101 91,419

93,562 93,014 92,414 91,760 91,049

523 573 626 682 740

0.99443 0.99386 0.99325 0.99260 0.99191

0.00557 0.00614 0.00675 0.00740 0.00809

24.49 23.62 22.76 21.91 21.07

15 16 17 18 19

99,302 99,278 99,250 99,219 99,185

99,290 99,264 99,235 99,202 99,168

24 28 31 34 35

0.99976 0.99972 0.99969 0.99966 0.99965

0.00024 0.00028 0.00031 0.00034 0.00035

67.50 66.51 65.53 64.55 63.57

65 66 67 68 69

90,679 89,877 89,009 88,066 87,041

90,278 89,443 88,538 87,554 86,482

802 868 943 1,025 1,118

0.99116 0.99034 0.98941 0.98836 0.98715

0.00884 0.00966 0.01059 0.01164 0.01285

20.24 19.42 18.60 17.80 17.00

20 21 22 23 24

99,150 99,113 99,076 99,039 99,002

99,132 99,095 99,058 99,021 98,984

37 37 37 37 37

0.99963 0.99963 0.99963 0.99963 0.99963

0.00037 0.00037 0.00037 0.00037 0.00037

62.60 61.62 60.64 59.66 58.69

70 71 72 73 74

85,923 84,699 83,356 81,880 80,256

85,311 84,028 82,618 81,068 79,364

1,224 1,343 1,476 1,624 1,785

0.98575 0.98414 0.98229 0.98017 0.97776

0.01425 0.01586 0.01771 0.01983 0.02224

16.22 15.44 14.68 13.94 13.21

25 26 27 28 29

98,965 98,928 98,891 98,853 98,814

98,947 98,910 98,872 98,834 98,794

37 37 38 39 40

0.99963 0.99963 0.99962 0.99961 0.99960

0.00037 0.00037 0.00038 0.00039 0.00040

57.71 56.73 55.75 54.77 53.79

75 76 77 78 79

78,471 76,512 74,366 72,023 69,475

77,492 75,439 73,195 70,749 68,094

1,959 2,146 2,343 2,548 2,762

0.97503 0.97195 0.96850 0.96462 0.96025

0.02497 0.02805 0.03150 0.03538 0.03975

12.50 11.81 11.13 10.48 9.85

30 31 32 33 34

98,774 98,733 98,690 98,645 98,598

98,754 98,712 98,668 98,622 98,573

41 43 45 47 50

0.99958 0.99956 0.99954 0.99952 0.99949

0.00042 0.00044 0.00046 0.00048 0.00051

52.81 51.84 50.86 49.88 48.91

80 81 82 83 84

66,713 63,733 60,534 57,122 53,507

65,223 62,134 58,828 55,315 51,605

2,980 3,199 3,412 3,615 3,805

0.95533 0.94981 0.94363 0.93671 0.92888

0.04467 0.05019 0.05637 0.06329 0.07112

9.23 8.64 8.07 7.52 7.00

35 36 37 38 39

98,548 98,496 98,440 98,380 98,316

98,522 98,468 98,410 98,348 98,281

52 56 60 64 70

0.99947 0.99943 0.99939 0.99935 0.99929

0.00053 0.00057 0.00061 0.00065 0.00071

47.93 46.96 45.98 45.01 44.04

85 86 87 88 89

49,702 45,722 41,591 37,343 33,027

47,712 43,657 39,467 35,185 30,868

3,980 4,131 4,248 4,316 4,318

0.91993 0.90965 0.89787 0.88442 0.86925

0.08007 0.09035 0.10213 0.11558 0.13075

6.49 6.02 5.56 5.14 4.75

40 41 42 43 44

98,246 98,170 98,087 97,995 97,893

98,208 98,129 98,041 97,944 97,837

76 83 92 102 113

0.99923 0.99915 0.99906 0.99896 0.99885

0.00077 0.00085 0.00094 0.00104 0.00115

43.07 42.10 41.14 40.18 39.22

90 91 92 93 94

28,709 24,480 20,444 16,702 13,336

26,595 22,462 18,573 15,019 11,870

4,229 4,036 3,742 3,366 2,932

0.85268 0.83512 0.81694 0.79849 0.78012

0.14732 0.16488 0.18306 0.20151 0.21988

4.39 4.06 3.76 3.49 3.24

45 46 47 48 49

97,780 97,655 97,517 97,366 97,200

97,718 97,586 97,442 97,283 97,110

125 138 151 166 181

0.99872 0.99859 0.99845 0.99830 0.99814

0.00128 0.00141 0.00155 0.00170 0.00186

38.26 37.31 36.36 35.42 34.48

95 96 97 98 99

10,404 7,916 5,864 4,221 2,947

9,160 6,890 5,043 3,584 2,470

2,488 2,052 1,643 1,274 955

0.76085 0.74073 0.71984 0.69825 0.67607

0.23915 0.25927 0.28016 0.30175 0.32393

3.02 2.81 2.62 2.44 2.28

100

1,992

1,647

690

0.65338 0.34662

2.13

63

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Appendix 2

New Zealand life tables, 1995–1997 (revised)

64

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002 Table A2.1

Total Male Population Life Table 1995–1997 Probability that a Male who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Number Dies of Life Number Dying Lives (Years) Alive within Remaining Alive in in the Another at Exact a at Age x the Age Age Year Age Year Interval Interval

Probability that a Male who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Number Dies of Life Number Dying Lives (Years) Alive within Remaining Alive in in the Another at Exact a at Age x the Age Age Year Age Year Interval Interval

Out of 100,000 Males Born

lx

x

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

Out of 100,000 Males Born

x

lx

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

0 1 2 3 4

100,000 99,278 99,209 99,169 99,134

99,424 99,244 99,189 99,152 99,119

722 69 40 35 31

0.99278 0.99931 0.99960 0.99965 0.99969

0.00722 0.00069 0.00040 0.00035 0.00031

74.41 73.95 73.00 72.03 71.05

50 51 52 53 54

93,213 92,825 92,393 91,913 91,381

93,019 92,609 92,153 91,647 91,087

388 432 480 532 589

0.99584 0.99535 0.99481 0.99421 0.99355

0.00416 0.00465 0.00519 0.00579 0.00645

27.66 26.77 25.90 25.03 24.17

5 6 7 8 9

99,103 99,076 99,053 99,033 99,016

99,090 99,065 99,043 99,025 99,008

27 23 20 17 16

0.99973 0.99977 0.99980 0.99983 0.99984

0.00027 0.00023 0.00020 0.00017 0.00016

70.07 69.09 68.11 67.12 66.13

55 56 57 58 59

90,792 90,140 89,422 88,632 87,764

90,466 89,781 89,027 88,198 87,289

652 718 790 868 950

0.99282 0.99203 0.99116 0.99021 0.98917

0.00718 0.00797 0.00884 0.00979 0.01083

23.32 22.49 21.67 20.86 20.06

10 11 12 13 14

99,000 98,984 98,967 98,946 98,917

98,992 98,976 98,957 98,932 98,896

16 17 21 29 42

0.99984 0.99983 0.99979 0.99971 0.99958

0.00016 0.00017 0.00021 0.00029 0.00042

65.14 64.15 63.17 62.18 61.20

60 61 62 63 64

86,814 85,774 84,637 83,397 82,048

86,294 85,206 84,017 82,723 81,315

1,040 1,137 1,240 1,349 1,466

0.98802 0.98675 0.98535 0.98382 0.98213

0.01198 0.01325 0.01465 0.01618 0.01787

19.27 18.50 17.74 17.00 16.27

15 16 17 18 19

98,875 98,813 98,722 98,602 98,457

98,844 98,768 98,662 98,530 98,379

62 91 120 145 157

0.99937 0.99908 0.99878 0.99853 0.99841

0.00063 0.00092 0.00122 0.00147 0.00159

60.22 59.26 58.31 57.38 56.47

65 66 67 68 69

80,582 78,993 77,276 75,425 73,437

79,788 78,135 76,351 74,431 72,372

1,589 1,717 1,851 1,988 2,130

0.98028 0.97826 0.97605 0.97364 0.97099

0.01972 0.02174 0.02395 0.02636 0.02901

15.55 14.86 14.18 13.51 12.86

20 21 22 23 24

98,300 98,142 97,986 97,833 97,683

98,221 98,064 97,910 97,758 97,610

158 156 153 150 146

0.99839 0.99841 0.99844 0.99847 0.99851

0.00161 0.00159 0.00156 0.00153 0.00149

55.56 54.65 53.73 52.82 51.90

70 71 72 73 74

71,307 69,032 66,610 64,041 61,328

70,170 67,821 65,326 62,685 59,902

2,275 2,422 2,569 2,713 2,853

0.96809 0.96491 0.96143 0.95763 0.95348

0.03191 0.03509 0.03857 0.04237 0.04652

12.23 11.62 11.02 10.45 9.89

25 26 27 28 29

97,537 97,395 97,256 97,120 96,987

97,466 97,326 97,188 97,054 96,922

142 139 136 133 131

0.99854 0.99857 0.99860 0.99863 0.99865

0.00146 0.00143 0.00140 0.00137 0.00135

50.97 50.05 49.12 48.19 47.25

75 76 77 78 79

58,475 55,492 52,389 49,181 45,881

56,984 53,941 50,785 47,531 44,192

2,983 3,103 3,208 3,300 3,379

0.94898 0.94408 0.93877 0.93291 0.92636

0.05102 0.05592 0.06123 0.06709 0.07364

9.34 8.82 8.31 7.82 7.35

30 31 32 33 34

96,856 96,727 96,599 96,472 96,345

96,792 96,663 96,536 96,409 96,282

129 128 127 127 127

0.99867 0.99868 0.99869 0.99868 0.99868

0.00133 0.00132 0.00131 0.00132 0.00132

46.31 45.38 44.43 43.49 42.55

80 81 82 83 84

42,502 39,059 35,570 32,065 28,582

40,781 37,315 33,818 30,324 26,874

3,443 3,489 3,505 3,483 3,416

0.91899 0.91068 0.90147 0.89139 0.88050

0.08101 0.08932 0.09853 0.10861 0.11950

6.89 6.46 6.04 5.65 5.27

35 36 37 38 39

96,218 96,089 95,957 95,822 95,682

96,154 96,023 95,890 95,752 95,609

129 132 135 140 146

0.99866 0.99863 0.99859 0.99854 0.99847

0.00134 0.00137 0.00141 0.00146 0.00153

41.60 40.66 39.72 38.77 37.83

85 86 87 88 89

25,166 21,864 18,719 15,768 13,044

23,515 20,292 17,244 14,406 11,811

3,302 3,145 2,951 2,724 2,467

0.86880 0.85614 0.84235 0.82727 0.81087

0.13120 0.14386 0.15765 0.17273 0.18913

4.92 4.59 4.28 3.98 3.71

40 41 42 43 44

95,536 95,382 95,218 95,042 94,850

95,459 95,300 95,130 94,946 94,745

154 164 176 192 210

0.99839 0.99828 0.99815 0.99798 0.99779

0.00161 0.00172 0.00185 0.00202 0.00221

36.88 35.94 35.00 34.07 33.14

90 91 92 93 94

10,577 8,393 6,510 4,934 3,648

9,485 7,452 5,722 4,291 3,138

2,184 1,883 1,576 1,286 1,021

0.79353 0.77570 0.75784 0.73928 0.72007

0.20647 0.22430 0.24216 0.26072 0.27993

3.46 3.23 3.02 2.83 2.64

45 46 47 48 49

94,640 94,410 94,156 93,874 93,561

94,525 94,283 94,015 93,718 93,387

230 254 282 313 348

0.99757 0.99731 0.99701 0.99667 0.99628

0.00243 0.00269 0.00299 0.00333 0.00372

32.21 31.28 30.37 29.46 28.55

95 96 97 98 99

2,627 1,840 1,251 825 527

2,234 1,546 1,038 676 426

787 589 426 298 202

0.70030 0.68002 0.65933 0.63833 0.61712

0.29970 0.31998 0.34067 0.36167 0.38288

2.48 2.32 2.18 2.05 1.93

100

325

260

131

0.59581 0.40419

1.82

65

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002 Table A2.2

Total Female Population Life Table 1995–1997 Probability that a Female who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Number Dies of Life Number Dying Lives (Years) Alive within Remaining Alive in in the Another at Exact a at Age x the Age Age Year Age Year Interval Interval

Probability that a Female who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Number Dies of Life Number Dying Lives (Years) Alive within Remaining Alive in in the Another at Exact a at Age x the Age Age Year Age Year Interval Interval

Out of 100,000 Females Born

lx

x

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

Out of 100,000 Females Born

x

lx

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

0 1 2 3 4

100,000 99,370 99,306 99,277 99,251

99,482 99,338 99,292 99,264 99,240

630 64 29 26 23

0.99371 0.99936 0.99971 0.99974 0.99977

0.00630 0.00064 0.00029 0.00026 0.00023

79.67 79.17 78.22 77.25 76.27

50 51 52 53 54

95,844 95,556 95,238 94,887 94,501

95,700 95,397 95,063 94,694 94,290

288 318 351 386 423

0.99700 0.99667 0.99631 0.99593 0.99552

0.00300 0.00333 0.00369 0.00407 0.00448

31.84 30.93 30.03 29.14 28.26

5 6 7 8 9

99,228 99,208 99,191 99,176 99,163

99,218 99,200 99,184 99,170 99,157

20 17 15 13 13

0.99980 0.99983 0.99985 0.99987 0.99987

0.00020 0.00017 0.00015 0.00013 0.00013

75.28 74.30 73.31 72.32 71.33

55 56 57 58 59

94,078 93,616 93,113 92,568 91,978

93,847 93,365 92,841 92,273 91,660

462 503 545 590 637

0.99509 0.99463 0.99415 0.99363 0.99307

0.00491 0.00537 0.00585 0.00637 0.00693

27.38 26.52 25.66 24.80 23.96

10 11 12 13 14

99,150 99,137 99,122 99,103 99,079

99,144 99,130 99,113 99,091 99,063

13 15 19 24 32

0.99987 0.99985 0.99981 0.99976 0.99968

0.00013 0.00015 0.00019 0.00024 0.00032

70.34 69.35 68.36 67.37 66.39

60 61 62 63 64

91,341 90,652 89,908 89,105 88,237

90,997 90,280 89,507 88,671 87,769

689 744 803 868 937

0.99246 0.99179 0.99107 0.99026 0.98938

0.00754 0.00821 0.00893 0.00974 0.01062

23.12 22.30 21.48 20.67 19.86

15 16 17 18 19

99,047 99,007 98,960 98,908 98,853

99,027 98,984 98,934 98,881 98,825

40 47 52 55 57

0.99960 0.99953 0.99947 0.99944 0.99942

0.00040 0.00047 0.00053 0.00056 0.00058

65.41 64.44 63.47 62.50 61.54

65 66 67 68 69

87,300 86,288 85,196 84,018 82,747

86,794 85,742 84,607 83,383 82,061

1,012 1,092 1,178 1,271 1,373

0.98841 0.98734 0.98617 0.98487 0.98341

0.01159 0.01266 0.01383 0.01513 0.01659

19.07 18.29 17.52 16.76 16.01

20 21 22 23 24

98,796 98,738 98,680 98,623 98,568

98,767 98,709 98,652 98,596 98,541

58 58 57 55 54

0.99941 0.99941 0.99942 0.99944 0.99945

0.00059 0.00059 0.00058 0.00056 0.00055

60.57 59.61 58.64 57.67 56.71

70 71 72 73 74

81,374 79,891 78,288 76,555 74,682

80,633 79,090 77,422 75,619 73,671

1,483 1,603 1,733 1,873 2,022

0.98178 0.97994 0.97786 0.97554 0.97293

0.01822 0.02006 0.02214 0.02446 0.02707

15.27 14.54 13.83 13.13 12.45

25 26 27 28 29

98,514 98,462 98,411 98,360 98,309

98,488 98,437 98,386 98,335 98,283

52 51 51 51 53

0.99947 0.99948 0.99948 0.99948 0.99946

0.00053 0.00052 0.00052 0.00052 0.00054

55.74 54.77 53.79 52.82 51.85

75 76 77 78 79

72,660 70,482 68,142 65,634 62,950

71,571 69,312 66,888 64,292 61,514

2,178 2,340 2,508 2,684 2,872

0.97003 0.96680 0.96320 0.95911 0.95438

0.02997 0.03320 0.03680 0.04089 0.04562

11.78 11.13 10.49 9.88 9.28

30 31 32 33 34

98,256 98,201 98,144 98,084 98,020

98,229 98,173 98,114 98,052 97,986

55 57 60 64 68

0.99944 0.99942 0.99939 0.99935 0.99931

0.00056 0.00058 0.00061 0.00065 0.00069

50.88 49.90 48.93 47.96 46.99

80 81 82 83 84

60,078 57,007 53,730 50,252 46,591

58,543 55,369 51,991 48,422 44,685

3,071 3,277 3,478 3,661 3,813

0.94889 0.94252 0.93526 0.92714 0.91817

0.05111 0.05748 0.06474 0.07286 0.08183

8.69 8.14 7.60 7.09 6.61

35 36 37 38 39

97,952 97,880 97,803 97,720 97,630

97,916 97,842 97,762 97,675 97,582

72 77 83 90 97

0.99926 0.99921 0.99915 0.99908 0.99901

0.00074 0.00079 0.00085 0.00092 0.00099

46.03 45.06 44.09 43.13 42.17

85 86 87 88 89

42,778 38,858 34,881 30,903 26,984

40,818 36,870 32,892 28,944 25,086

3,920 3,977 3,978 3,919 3,797

0.90837 0.89766 0.88595 0.87318 0.85927

0.09163 0.10234 0.11405 0.12682 0.14073

6.16 5.73 5.32 4.94 4.59

40 41 42 43 44

97,533 97,429 97,315 97,190 97,053

97,481 97,372 97,253 97,122 96,977

104 114 125 137 152

0.99893 0.99883 0.99872 0.99859 0.99843

0.00107 0.00117 0.00128 0.00141 0.00157

41.21 40.26 39.30 38.35 37.41

90 91 92 93 94

23,187 19,574 16,204 13,130 10,398

21,381 17,889 14,667 11,764 9,219

3,613 3,370 3,074 2,732 2,358

0.84416 0.82781 0.81028 0.79192 0.77318

0.15584 0.17219 0.18972 0.20808 0.22682

4.26 3.95 3.67 3.41 3.18

45 46 47 48 49

96,901 96,732 96,544 96,335 96,103

96,817 96,638 96,440 96,219 95,974

169 188 209 232 259

0.99826 0.99806 0.99784 0.99759 0.99731

0.00174 0.00194 0.00216 0.00241 0.00269

36.46 35.53 34.59 33.67 32.75

95 96 97 98 99

8,040 6,066 4,458 3,186 2,210

7,053 5,262 3,822 2,698 1,848

1,974 1,608 1,272 976 725

0.75447 0.73495 0.71467 0.69369 0.67209

0.24553 0.26505 0.28533 0.30631 0.32791

2.96 2.76 2.58 2.41 2.25

100

1,485

1,225

520

0.64995 0.35005

2.11

66

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002 Table A2.3

Mäori Male Population Life Table 1995–1997 Probability that a Male who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Number Dies of Life Number Dying Lives (Years) Alive within Remaining Alive in in the Another at Exact a at Age x the Age Age Year Age Year Interval Interval

Probability that a Male who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Number Dies of Life Number Dying Lives (Years) Alive within Remaining Alive in in the Another at Exact a at Age x the Age Age Year Age Year Interval Interval

Out of 100,000 Males Born

lx

x

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

Out of 100,000 Males Born

x

Lx

lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

0 1 2 3 4

100,000 98,935 98,819 98,760 98,710

99,190 98,877 98,790 98,735 98,689

1,065 116 59 50 42

0.98935 0.99883 0.99940 0.99949 0.99957

0.01065 0.00117 0.00060 0.00051 0.00043

66.58 66.30 65.38 64.41 63.45

50 51 52 53 54

87,402 86,453 85,411 84,279 83,061

86,928 85,932 84,845 83,670 82,409

949 1,042 1,132 1,218 1,304

0.98914 0.98795 0.98675 0.98555 0.98430

0.01086 0.01205 0.01325 0.01445 0.01570

21.54 20.77 20.02 19.28 18.55

5 6 7 8 9

98,668 98,633 98,604 98,581 98,561

98,651 98,619 98,593 98,571 98,552

35 29 23 20 19

0.99965 0.99971 0.99977 0.99980 0.99981

0.00035 0.00029 0.00023 0.00020 0.00019

62.47 61.50 60.51 59.53 58.54

55 56 57 58 59

81,757 80,364 78,875 77,280 75,567

81,061 79,620 78,078 76,424 74,645

1,393 1,489 1,595 1,713 1,844

0.98296 0.98147 0.97978 0.97784 0.97560

0.01704 0.01853 0.02022 0.02216 0.02440

17.84 17.14 16.46 15.79 15.13

10 11 12 13 14

98,542 98,522 98,496 98,462 98,407

98,532 98,509 98,479 98,435 98,364

20 26 34 55 87

0.99980 0.99974 0.99965 0.99944 0.99912

0.00020 0.00026 0.00035 0.00056 0.00088

57.55 56.56 55.58 54.60 53.63

60 61 62 63 64

73,723 71,733 69,583 67,262 64,769

72,728 70,658 68,423 66,016 63,443

1,990 2,150 2,321 2,493 2,652

0.97301 0.97003 0.96664 0.96294 0.95905

0.02699 0.02997 0.03336 0.03706 0.04095

14.50 13.89 13.30 12.74 12.21

15 16 17 18 19

98,320 98,196 98,037 97,851 97,645

98,258 98,117 97,944 97,748 97,536

124 159 186 206 219

0.99874 0.99838 0.99810 0.99789 0.99776

0.00126 0.00162 0.00190 0.00211 0.00224

52.67 51.74 50.82 49.92 49.02

65 66 67 68 69

62,117 59,329 56,436 53,477 50,495

60,723 57,883 54,957 51,986 49,014

2,788 2,893 2,959 2,982 2,963

0.95511 0.95124 0.94757 0.94423 0.94132

0.04489 0.04876 0.05243 0.05577 0.05868

11.71 11.24 10.79 10.36 9.94

20 21 22 23 24

97,426 97,200 96,972 96,743 96,516

97,313 97,086 96,858 96,630 96,403

226 228 229 227 226

0.99768 0.99765 0.99764 0.99765 0.99766

0.00232 0.00235 0.00236 0.00235 0.00234

48.13 47.24 46.35 45.46 44.57

70 71 72 73 74

47,532 44,631 41,828 39,136 36,547

46,082 43,230 40,482 37,842 35,292

2,901 2,803 2,692 2,589 2,510

0.93897 0.93720 0.93565 0.93384 0.93131

0.06103 0.06280 0.06435 0.06616 0.06869

9.53 9.12 8.70 8.26 7.81

25 26 27 28 29

96,290 96,065 95,838 95,608 95,374

96,178 95,952 95,723 95,491 95,255

225 227 230 234 238

0.99766 0.99764 0.99760 0.99755 0.99750

0.00234 0.00236 0.00240 0.00245 0.00250

43.67 42.77 41.87 40.97 40.07

75 76 77 78 79

34,037 31,573 29,119 26,641 24,112

32,805 30,346 27,880 25,377 22,815

2,464 2,454 2,478 2,529 2,594

0.92761 0.92228 0.91490 0.90506 0.89240

0.07239 0.07772 0.08510 0.09494 0.10760

7.35 6.88 6.42 5.97 5.55

30 31 32 33 34

95,136 94,892 94,642 94,388 94,131

95,014 94,767 94,515 94,260 94,002

244 250 254 257 258

0.99743 0.99737 0.99732 0.99728 0.99726

0.00257 0.00263 0.00268 0.00272 0.00274

39.17 38.27 37.37 36.47 35.57

80 81 82 83 84

21,518 18,883 16,333 13,907 11,641

20,201 17,608 15,120 12,774 10,604

2,635 2,550 2,426 2,266 2,075

0.87755 0.86495 0.85145 0.83705 0.82174

0.12245 0.13505 0.14855 0.16295 0.17826

5.16 4.81 4.48 4.17 3.89

35 36 37 38 39

93,873 93,616 93,359 93,101 92,839

93,745 93,488 93,230 92,970 92,704

257 257 258 262 270

0.99726 0.99725 0.99724 0.99719 0.99709

0.00274 0.00275 0.00276 0.00281 0.00291

34.66 33.76 32.85 31.94 31.03

85 86 87 88 89

9,566 7,706 6,076 4,681 3,518

8,636 6,891 5,379 4,100 3,047

1,860 1,630 1,395 1,163 943

0.80553 0.78843 0.77046 0.75165 0.73204

0.19447 0.21157 0.22954 0.24835 0.26796

3.62 3.37 3.14 2.93 2.74

40 41 42 43 44

92,569 92,283 91,973 91,630 91,242

92,426 92,128 91,802 91,436 91,020

286 310 343 388 445

0.99691 0.99664 0.99627 0.99577 0.99512

0.00309 0.00336 0.00373 0.00423 0.00488

30.11 29.21 28.30 27.41 26.52

90 91 92 93 94

2,575 1,833 1,266 847 548

2,204 1,550 1,057 698 445

742 567 419 299 206

0.71169 0.69066 0.66903 0.64687 0.62429

0.28831 0.30934 0.33097 0.35313 0.37571

2.56 2.39 2.24 2.09 1.96

45 46 47 48 49

90,797 90,284 89,694 89,020 88,257

90,541 89,989 89,357 88,639 87,830

513 590 674 763 855

0.99435 0.99346 0.99248 0.99143 0.99031

0.00565 0.00654 0.00752 0.00857 0.00969

25.65 24.79 23.95 23.13 22.33

95 96 97 98 99

342 206 119 66 35

274 163 93 51 27

136 87 53 31 17

0.60139 0.57830 0.55513 0.53202 0.50911

0.39861 0.42170 0.44487 0.46798 0.49089

1.85 1.73 1.63 1.55 1.47

100

18

14

9

0.48656 0.51344

1.39

67

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002 Table A2.4

Mäori Female Population Life Table 1995–1997 Probability that a Female who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Number Dies of Life Number Dying Lives (Years) Alive within Remaining Alive in in the Another at Exact a at Age x the Age Age Year Age Year Interval Interval

Probability that a Female who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Number Dies of Life Number Dying Lives (Years) Alive within Remaining Alive in in the Another at Exact a at Age x the Age Age Year Age Year Interval Interval

Out of 100,000 Females Born

lx

x

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

Out of 100,000 Females Born

x

lx

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

0 1 2 3 4

100,000 99,036 98,931 98,885 98,844

99,256 98,984 98,908 98,865 98,827

964 105 46 41 35

0.99036 0.99894 0.99953 0.99959 0.99965

0.00964 0.00106 0.00047 0.00041 0.00035

71.30 70.99 70.07 69.10 68.13

50 51 52 53 54

91,667 90,965 90,196 89,360 88,456

91,316 90,581 89,778 88,908 87,969

702 769 836 904 975

0.99234 0.99155 0.99073 0.98988 0.98898

0.00766 0.00845 0.00927 0.01012 0.01102

24.80 23.99 23.19 22.40 21.63

5 6 7 8 9

98,809 98,780 98,756 98,737 98,720

98,795 98,768 98,747 98,729 98,712

29 24 19 17 17

0.99971 0.99976 0.99981 0.99983 0.99983

0.00029 0.00024 0.00019 0.00017 0.00017

67.15 66.17 65.19 64.20 63.21

55 56 57 58 59

87,481 86,431 85,300 84,081 82,765

86,956 85,866 84,691 83,423 82,054

1,050 1,131 1,219 1,316 1,422

0.98800 0.98691 0.98571 0.98435 0.98282

0.01200 0.01309 0.01429 0.01565 0.01718

20.86 20.11 19.37 18.64 17.93

10 11 12 13 14

98,703 98,683 98,657 98,622 98,578

98,693 98,670 98,640 98,600 98,551

20 26 35 44 55

0.99980 0.99974 0.99965 0.99955 0.99944

0.00020 0.00026 0.00035 0.00045 0.00056

62.22 61.23 60.25 59.27 58.30

60 61 62 63 64

81,343 79,805 78,140 76,340 74,398

80,574 78,973 77,240 75,369 73,356

1,538 1,665 1,800 1,942 2,084

0.98109 0.97914 0.97696 0.97456 0.97199

0.01891 0.02086 0.02304 0.02544 0.02801

17.24 16.56 15.90 15.26 14.65

15 16 17 18 19

98,523 98,458 98,384 98,304 98,220

98,491 98,421 98,344 98,262 98,177

65 74 80 84 86

0.99934 0.99925 0.99919 0.99915 0.99912

0.00066 0.00075 0.00081 0.00085 0.00088

57.33 56.37 55.41 54.45 53.50

65 66 67 68 69

72,314 70,091 67,737 65,265 62,688

71,203 68,914 66,501 63,977 61,357

2,223 2,354 2,472 2,577 2,663

0.96926 0.96642 0.96350 0.96052 0.95752

0.03074 0.03358 0.03650 0.03948 0.04248

14.06 13.49 12.94 12.41 11.90

20 21 22 23 24

98,134 98,047 97,960 97,873 97,786

98,091 98,004 97,917 97,830 97,743

87 87 87 87 87

0.99911 0.99911 0.99911 0.99911 0.99911

0.00089 0.00089 0.00089 0.00089 0.00089

52.55 51.59 50.64 49.68 48.73

70 71 72 73 74

60,025 57,296 54,521 51,718 48,900

58,661 55,909 53,120 50,309 47,489

2,729 2,775 2,803 2,818 2,822

0.95453 0.95156 0.94858 0.94551 0.94229

0.04547 0.04844 0.05142 0.05449 0.05771

11.40 10.92 10.45 9.99 9.54

25 26 27 28 29

97,699 97,611 97,521 97,427 97,329

97,655 97,566 97,474 97,378 97,278

88 90 94 98 103

0.99910 0.99908 0.99904 0.99899 0.99894

0.00090 0.00092 0.00096 0.00101 0.00106

47.77 46.81 45.86 44.90 43.94

75 76 77 78 79

46,078 43,262 40,459 37,677 34,922

44,670 41,861 39,068 36,300 33,562

2,816 2,803 2,782 2,755 2,720

0.93888 0.93521 0.93123 0.92687 0.92210

0.06112 0.06479 0.06877 0.07313 0.07790

9.09 8.65 8.22 7.79 7.36

30 31 32 33 34

97,226 97,116 96,999 96,874 96,740

97,171 97,058 96,937 96,807 96,669

110 117 125 134 142

0.99887 0.99880 0.99871 0.99862 0.99853

0.00113 0.00120 0.00129 0.00138 0.00147

42.99 42.04 41.09 40.14 39.20

80 81 82 83 84

32,202 29,524 26,898 24,316 21,772

30,863 28,211 25,607 23,044 20,520

2,678 2,626 2,582 2,544 2,504

0.91685 0.91106 0.90399 0.89539 0.88498

0.08315 0.08894 0.09601 0.10461 0.11502

6.94 6.53 6.12 5.71 5.32

35 36 37 38 39

96,598 96,446 96,283 96,108 95,919

96,522 96,365 96,196 96,014 95,816

152 163 175 189 207

0.99843 0.99831 0.99818 0.99803 0.99784

0.00157 0.00169 0.00182 0.00197 0.00216

38.25 37.31 36.37 35.44 34.51

85 86 87 88 89

19,268 16,809 14,436 12,187 10,098

18,039 15,623 13,312 11,143 9,149

2,459 2,373 2,249 2,089 1,899

0.87238 0.85880 0.84421 0.82860 0.81197

0.12762 0.14120 0.15579 0.17140 0.18803

4.95 4.60 4.27 3.97 3.68

40 41 42 43 44

95,712 95,483 95,229 94,944 94,624

95,598 95,356 95,087 94,784 94,444

229 254 285 320 361

0.99761 0.99734 0.99701 0.99663 0.99618

0.00239 0.00266 0.00299 0.00337 0.00382

33.58 32.66 31.75 30.84 29.94

90 91 92 93 94

8,199 6,513 5,052 3,819 2,808

7,356 5,783 4,436 3,314 2,406

1,686 1,461 1,233 1,011 804

0.79431 0.77564 0.75596 0.73533 0.71378

0.20569 0.22436 0.24404 0.26467 0.28622

3.42 3.18 2.95 2.74 2.55

45 46 47 48 49

94,263 93,855 93,395 92,879 92,304

94,059 93,625 93,137 92,592 91,986

408 460 516 575 637

0.99567 0.99510 0.99448 0.99381 0.99310

0.00433 0.00490 0.00552 0.00619 0.00690

29.06 28.18 27.32 26.47 25.63

95 96 97 98 99

2,004 1,386 926 597 370

1,695 1,156 762 484 295

618 460 329 227 150

0.69137 0.66817 0.64427 0.61975 0.59473

0.30863 0.33183 0.35573 0.38025 0.40527

2.38 2.21 2.06 1.92 1.80

100

220

173

95

0.56933 0.43067

1.68

68

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002 Table A2.5

Non-Mäori Male Population Life Table 1995–1997 Probability that a Male who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Number Dies of Life Number Dying Lives (Years) Alive within Remaining Alive in in the Another at Exact a at Age x the Age Age Year Age Year Interval Interval

Probability that a Male who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Number Dies of Life Number Dying Lives (Years) Alive within Remaining Alive in in the Another at Exact a at Age x the Age Age Year Age Year Interval Interval

Out of 100,000 Males Born

lx

x

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

Out of 100,000 Males Born

x

lx

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

0 1 2 3 4

100,000 99,411 99,361 99,328 99,298

99,512 99,386 99,345 99,313 99,285

589 50 33 30 27

0.99411 0.99950 0.99967 0.99970 0.99973

0.00589 0.00050 0.00033 0.00030 0.00027

75.40 74.85 73.88 72.91 71.93

50 51 52 53 54

94,213 93,880 93,510 93,099 92,641

94,047 93,695 93,305 92,870 92,386

333 370 411 458 510

0.99647 0.99606 0.99560 0.99508 0.99450

0.00353 0.00394 0.00440 0.00492 0.00550

28.19 27.29 26.40 25.51 24.64

5 6 7 8 9

99,271 99,247 99,226 99,207 99,190

99,259 99,237 99,217 99,199 99,183

24 21 19 17 15

0.99976 0.99979 0.99981 0.99983 0.99985

0.00024 0.00021 0.00019 0.00017 0.00015

70.95 69.97 68.98 67.99 67.01

55 56 57 58 59

92,131 91,566 90,941 90,249 89,485

91,849 91,254 90,595 89,867 89,064

565 625 692 764 842

0.99387 0.99317 0.99239 0.99154 0.99059

0.00613 0.00683 0.00761 0.00846 0.00941

23.77 22.91 22.07 21.23 20.41

10 11 12 13 14

99,175 99,161 99,147 99,131 99,111

99,168 99,154 99,139 99,121 99,096

14 14 16 20 31

0.99986 0.99986 0.99984 0.99980 0.99969

0.00014 0.00014 0.00016 0.00020 0.00031

66.02 65.02 64.03 63.04 62.06

60 61 62 63 64

88,643 87,714 86,690 85,562 84,321

88,179 87,202 86,126 84,942 83,640

929 1,024 1,128 1,241 1,363

0.98952 0.98833 0.98699 0.98550 0.98384

0.01048 0.01167 0.01301 0.01450 0.01616

19.60 18.80 18.02 17.25 16.50

15 16 17 18 19

99,080 99,031 98,956 98,851 98,723

99,056 98,994 98,904 98,787 98,654

49 75 105 128 139

0.99951 0.99924 0.99894 0.99871 0.99859

0.00049 0.00076 0.00106 0.00129 0.00141

61.08 60.11 59.15 58.21 57.29

65 66 67 68 69

82,958 81,464 79,831 78,051 76,116

82,211 80,648 78,941 77,084 75,069

1,494 1,633 1,780 1,935 2,095

0.98199 0.97995 0.97770 0.97521 0.97248

0.01801 0.02005 0.02230 0.02479 0.02752

15.76 15.04 14.34 13.65 12.99

20 21 22 23 24

98,584 98,443 98,304 98,169 98,038

98,514 98,374 98,237 98,104 97,975

141 139 135 131 127

0.99857 0.99859 0.99863 0.99867 0.99870

0.00143 0.00141 0.00137 0.00133 0.00130

56.37 55.45 54.53 53.60 52.67

70 71 72 73 74

74,021 71,762 69,336 66,742 63,984

72,892 70,549 68,039 65,363 62,526

2,259 2,426 2,594 2,758 2,916

0.96948 0.96619 0.96259 0.95867 0.95442

0.03052 0.03381 0.03741 0.04133 0.04558

12.34 11.71 11.10 10.52 9.95

25 26 27 28 29

97,911 97,788 97,668 97,551 97,437

97,850 97,728 97,610 97,494 97,382

123 120 117 114 111

0.99874 0.99877 0.99880 0.99883 0.99886

0.00126 0.00123 0.00120 0.00117 0.00114

51.74 50.80 49.87 48.92 47.98

75 76 77 78 79

61,068 58,002 54,801 51,482 48,061

59,535 56,402 53,142 49,772 46,308

3,066 3,201 3,319 3,421 3,507

0.94980 0.94482 0.93943 0.93354 0.92702

0.05020 0.05518 0.06057 0.06646 0.07298

9.40 8.87 8.36 7.87 7.39

30 31 32 33 34

97,326 97,217 97,109 97,002 96,895

97,272 97,163 97,056 96,949 96,841

109 108 107 107 108

0.99888 0.99889 0.99890 0.99890 0.99889

0.00112 0.00111 0.00110 0.00110 0.00111

47.04 46.09 45.14 44.19 43.24

80 81 82 83 84

44,554 40,979 37,358 33,720 30,095

42,767 39,169 35,539 31,908 28,313

3,575 3,621 3,638 3,625 3,564

0.91975 0.91164 0.90261 0.89250 0.88156

0.08025 0.08836 0.09739 0.10750 0.11844

6.93 6.49 6.07 5.67 5.30

35 36 37 38 39

96,787 96,679 96,568 96,454 96,335

96,733 96,624 96,511 96,395 96,273

108 111 114 119 124

0.99888 0.99885 0.99882 0.99877 0.99871

0.00112 0.00115 0.00118 0.00123 0.00129

42.28 41.33 40.38 39.42 38.47

85 86 87 88 89

26,531 23,077 19,780 16,680 13,814

24,804 21,429 18,230 15,247 12,514

3,454 3,297 3,100 2,866 2,600

0.86982 0.85713 0.84330 0.82819 0.81175

0.13018 0.14287 0.15670 0.17181 0.18825

4.94 4.61 4.29 4.00 3.72

40 41 42 43 44

96,211 96,079 95,939 95,787 95,622

96,145 96,009 95,863 95,705 95,532

132 140 152 165 181

0.99863 0.99854 0.99842 0.99828 0.99811

0.00137 0.00146 0.00158 0.00172 0.00189

37.52 36.57 35.62 34.68 33.74

90 91 92 93 94

11,214 8,908 6,917 5,247 3,883

10,061 7,913 6,082 4,565 3,341

2,306 1,991 1,670 1,364 1,084

0.79436 0.77650 0.75860 0.74000 0.72076

0.20564 0.22350 0.24140 0.26000 0.27924

3.47 3.24 3.03 2.83 2.65

45 46 47 48 49

95,441 95,242 95,023 94,781 94,512

95,342 95,133 94,902 94,647 94,363

199 219 242 269 299

0.99792 0.99770 0.99745 0.99716 0.99684

0.00208 0.00230 0.00255 0.00284 0.00316

32.80 31.87 30.94 30.02 29.10

95 96 97 98 99

2,799 1,962 1,335 881 563

2,381 1,649 1,108 722 456

837 627 454 318 215

0.70094 0.68063 0.65991 0.63886 0.61761

0.29906 0.31937 0.34009 0.36114 0.38239

2.48 2.33 2.19 2.06 1.94

100

348

278

140

0.59627 0.40373

1.83

69

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002 Table A2.6

Non-Mäori Female Population Life Table 1995–1997 Probability that a Female who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Number Dies of Life Number Dying Lives (Years) Alive within Remaining Alive in in the Another at Exact a at Age x the Age Age Year Age Year Interval Interval

Probability that a Female who Expected Reaches this Age Number of Exact Years Average Number Age Number Dies of Life Number Dying Lives (Years) Alive within Remaining Alive in in the Another at Exact a at Age x the Age Age Year Age Year Interval Interval

Out of 100,000 Females Born

lx

x

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

Out of 100,000 Females Born

x

lx

Lx

dx

px

qx

e0x

0 1 2 3 4

100,000 99,498 99,452 99,427 99,405

99,570 99,475 99,440 99,416 99,395

502 46 25 22 20

0.99498 0.99954 0.99975 0.99978 0.99980

0.00502 0.00046 0.00025 0.00022 0.00020

80.61 80.01 79.05 78.07 77.09

50 51 52 53 54

96,580 96,335 96,062 95,760 95,428

96,458 96,199 95,911 95,594 95,246

245 273 302 332 365

0.99746 0.99717 0.99686 0.99653 0.99618

0.00254 0.00283 0.00314 0.00347 0.00382

32.40 31.49 30.57 29.67 28.77

5 6 7 8 9

99,385 99,368 99,353 99,340 99,328

99,377 99,361 99,347 99,334 99,323

17 15 13 12 11

0.99983 0.99985 0.99987 0.99988 0.99989

0.00017 0.00015 0.00013 0.00012 0.00011

76.10 75.11 74.13 73.14 72.14

55 56 57 58 59

95,063 94,666 94,233 93,765 93,259

94,865 94,450 93,999 93,512 92,986

397 433 468 506 546

0.99582 0.99543 0.99503 0.99460 0.99414

0.00418 0.00457 0.00497 0.00540 0.00586

27.88 26.99 26.12 25.24 24.38

10 11 12 13 14

99,317 99,306 99,293 99,277 99,257

99,312 99,300 99,285 99,267 99,244

11 13 16 20 27

0.99989 0.99987 0.99984 0.99980 0.99973

0.00011 0.00013 0.00016 0.00020 0.00027

71.15 70.16 69.17 68.18 67.19

60 61 62 63 64

92,713 92,121 91,480 90,784 90,026

92,417 91,801 91,132 90,405 89,613

592 641 696 758 826

0.99362 0.99304 0.99239 0.99165 0.99082

0.00638 0.00696 0.00761 0.00835 0.00918

23.52 22.67 21.82 20.98 20.16

15 16 17 18 19

99,230 99,196 99,156 99,112 99,065

99,213 99,176 99,134 99,089 99,041

34 40 44 47 49

0.99966 0.99960 0.99956 0.99953 0.99951

0.00034 0.00040 0.00044 0.00047 0.00049

66.21 65.23 64.26 63.29 62.32

65 66 67 68 69

89,200 88,297 87,311 86,232 85,051

88,749 87,804 86,772 85,642 84,405

903 986 1,079 1,181 1,292

0.98988 0.98883 0.98764 0.98631 0.98481

0.01012 0.01117 0.01236 0.01369 0.01519

19.34 18.53 17.74 16.95 16.18

20 21 22 23 24

99,016 98,967 98,919 98,872 98,826

98,992 98,943 98,896 98,849 98,804

49 48 47 46 45

0.99951 0.99951 0.99952 0.99953 0.99954

0.00049 0.00049 0.00048 0.00047 0.00046

61.35 60.38 59.41 58.44 57.46

70 71 72 73 74

83,759 82,344 80,797 79,107 77,263

83,052 81,571 79,952 78,185 76,260

1,415 1,547 1,690 1,844 2,006

0.98311 0.98121 0.97908 0.97669 0.97404

0.01689 0.01879 0.02092 0.02331 0.02596

15.42 14.68 13.95 13.24 12.54

25 26 27 28 29

98,781 98,738 98,695 98,653 98,610

98,760 98,717 98,674 98,632 98,589

43 43 42 43 43

0.99956 0.99956 0.99957 0.99956 0.99956

0.00044 0.00044 0.00043 0.00044 0.00044

56.49 55.51 54.54 53.56 52.58

75 76 77 78 79

75,257 73,082 70,732 68,203 65,486

74,170 71,907 69,468 66,845 64,026

2,175 2,350 2,529 2,717 2,920

0.97110 0.96785 0.96425 0.96016 0.95541

0.02890 0.03215 0.03575 0.03984 0.04459

11.86 11.20 10.55 9.93 9.32

30 31 32 33 34

98,567 98,522 98,475 98,426 98,374

98,545 98,499 98,451 98,400 98,347

45 47 49 52 55

0.99954 0.99952 0.99950 0.99947 0.99944

0.00046 0.00048 0.00050 0.00053 0.00056

51.61 50.63 49.65 48.68 47.70

80 81 82 83 84

62,566 59,427 56,057 52,462 48,671

60,997 57,742 54,260 50,567 46,694

3,139 3,370 3,595 3,791 3,955

0.94983 0.94330 0.93587 0.92773 0.91874

0.05017 0.05670 0.06413 0.07227 0.08126

8.73 8.17 7.63 7.11 6.63

35 36 37 38 39

98,319 98,260 98,197 98,130 98,058

98,290 98,229 98,164 98,094 98,020

59 63 67 72 77

0.99940 0.99936 0.99932 0.99927 0.99921

0.00060 0.00064 0.00068 0.00073 0.00079

46.73 45.76 44.79 43.82 42.85

85 86 87 88 89

44,716 40,643 36,505 32,361 28,273

42,680 38,574 34,433 30,317 26,290

4,073 4,138 4,144 4,088 3,966

0.90892 0.89819 0.88647 0.87367 0.85974

0.09108 0.10181 0.11353 0.12633 0.14026

6.17 5.74 5.33 4.95 4.60

40 41 42 43 44

97,981 97,897 97,805 97,703 97,591

97,939 97,851 97,754 97,647 97,529

84 92 102 112 125

0.99914 0.99906 0.99896 0.99885 0.99872

0.00086 0.00094 0.00104 0.00115 0.00128

41.88 40.92 39.96 39.00 38.04

90 91 92 93 94

24,307 20,530 17,004 13,785 10,922

22,419 18,767 15,395 12,354 9,686

3,777 3,526 3,219 2,863 2,473

0.84462 0.82825 0.81069 0.79232 0.77356

0.15538 0.17175 0.18931 0.20768 0.22644

4.27 3.96 3.68 3.42 3.18

45 46 47 48 49

97,466 97,327 97,171 96,996 96,800

97,397 97,249 97,084 96,898 96,690

139 156 175 196 220

0.99857 0.99840 0.99820 0.99798 0.99773

0.00143 0.00160 0.00180 0.00202 0.00227

37.09 36.14 35.20 34.26 33.33

95 96 97 98 99

8,449 6,378 4,690 3,353 2,327

7,414 5,534 4,022 2,840 1,946

2,071 1,688 1,337 1,026 762

0.75483 0.73529 0.71499 0.69399 0.67237

0.24517 0.26471 0.28501 0.30601 0.32763

2.97 2.77 2.58 2.41 2.26

100

1,565

1,292

547

0.65022 0.34978

2.11

70

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002

Appendix 3

Five-year age group mortality and survivorship rates, 1995–2002

71

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002 Table A3.1

Life Table Mortality and Survivorship Rates By five-year age group Total, Mäori and non-Mäori populations, 2000–2002

Exact Age (years)

x

Total Population Mäori Population Non-Mäori Population Probability that a Proportion of Probability that a Proportion of Probability that a Proportion of Person who Central Age Group Person who Central Age Group Person who Central Age Group Reaches this Age: Annual x to x+5 Reaches this Age: Annual x to x+5 Reaches this Age: Annual x to x+5 Lives Dies Death who Will Lives Dies Death who Will Lives Dies Death who Will Another within Rate for Survive Another within Rate for Survive Another within Rate for Survive Five Five Age Group Another Five Five Age Group Another Five Five Age Group Another Years Years x to x+5 Five Years Years Years x to x+5 Five Years Years Years x to x+5 Five Years 5px 5qx 5mx 5sx 5px 5qx 5mx 5sx 5px 5qx 5mx 5sx Male

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

0.99235 0.99920 0.99871 0.99564 0.99427 0.99401 0.99389 0.99315 0.99102 0.98677 0.97918 0.96577 0.94281 0.90495 0.84635 0.76054 0.63128 0.45304 0.26254

0.00765 0.00080 0.00129 0.00436 0.00573 0.00599 0.00611 0.00685 0.00898 0.01323 0.02082 0.03423 0.05719 0.09505 0.15365 0.23946 0.36872 0.54696 0.73746

0.00154 0.00016 0.00026 0.00087 0.00115 0.00120 0.00122 0.00137 0.00180 0.00266 0.00420 0.00696 0.01175 0.01989 0.03314 0.05415 0.09014 0.15271 0.25342

0.99854 0.99916 0.99723 0.99480 0.99409 0.99397 0.99361 0.99223 0.98909 0.98335 0.97308 0.95534 0.92549 0.87811 0.80720 0.70350 0.55275 0.36810 0.20784

0.98940 0.99881 0.99864 0.99426 0.99203 0.99139 0.99010 0.98784 0.98212 0.96900 0.94674 0.91458 0.87106 0.81161 0.72898 0.63295 0.51695 0.33534 0.17622

0.01060 0.00119 0.00136 0.00574 0.00797 0.00861 0.00990 0.01216 0.01788 0.03100 0.05326 0.08542 0.12894 0.18839 0.27102 0.36705 0.48305 0.66466 0.82378

0.00214 0.00024 0.00027 0.00115 0.00160 0.00173 0.00199 0.00245 0.00361 0.00629 0.01092 0.01780 0.02748 0.04145 0.06256 0.09032 0.12855 0.20877 0.32492

0.99782 0.99897 0.99662 0.99287 0.99172 0.99081 0.98909 0.98543 0.97628 0.95868 0.93166 0.89416 0.84370 0.77372 0.68378 0.58527 0.43798 0.26706 0.13506

0.99353 0.99930 0.99874 0.99606 0.99466 0.99457 0.99466 0.99393 0.99224 0.98893 0.98231 0.97028 0.94905 0.91191 0.85226 0.76485 0.63433 0.45499 0.26351

0.00647 0.00070 0.00126 0.00394 0.00534 0.00543 0.00534 0.00607 0.00776 0.01107 0.01769 0.02972 0.05095 0.08809 0.14774 0.23515 0.36567 0.54501 0.73649

0.00130 0.00014 0.00025 0.00079 0.00107 0.00109 0.00107 0.00122 0.00156 0.00223 0.00357 0.00603 0.01043 0.01837 0.03175 0.05303 0.08919 0.15188 0.25273

0.99880 0.99920 0.99744 0.99520 0.99457 0.99465 0.99437 0.99317 0.99077 0.98597 0.97684 0.96071 0.93220 0.88461 0.81226 0.70712 0.55521 0.36950 0.20862

0.00180 0.00019 0.00019 0.00048 0.00064 0.00081 0.00117 0.00157 0.00246 0.00468 0.00815 0.01298 0.02122 0.03314 0.04478 0.05911 0.09107 0.15412 0.24822

0.99835 0.99917 0.99839 0.99711 0.99647 0.99511 0.99320 0.99038 0.98291 0.96885 0.94937 0.91975 0.87366 0.82254 0.77402 0.69518 0.54865 0.37132 0.21054

0.99439 0.99933 0.99930 0.99847 0.99813 0.99807 0.99771 0.99694 0.99526 0.99222 0.98747 0.97933 0.96649 0.94755 0.91327 0.85016 0.74501 0.57762 0.36240

0.00561 0.00067 0.00070 0.00153 0.00187 0.00193 0.00229 0.00306 0.00474 0.00778 0.01253 0.02067 0.03351 0.05245 0.08673 0.14984 0.25499 0.42238 0.63760

0.00113 0.00013 0.00014 0.00031 0.00037 0.00039 0.00046 0.00061 0.00095 0.00156 0.00252 0.00417 0.00681 0.01075 0.01807 0.03222 0.05804 0.10662 0.19367

0.99888 0.99940 0.99889 0.99825 0.99812 0.99792 0.99737 0.99620 0.99384 0.99004 0.98375 0.97333 0.95777 0.93238 0.88501 0.80309 0.67174 0.48006 0.28720

Female 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

0.99348 0.99924 0.99918 0.99828 0.99787 0.99772 0.99715 0.99629 0.99428 0.99058 0.98502 0.97570 0.96103 0.94031 0.90748 0.84647 0.74214 0.57564 0.36127

0.00652 0.00076 0.00082 0.00172 0.00213 0.00228 0.00285 0.00371 0.00572 0.00942 0.01498 0.02430 0.03897 0.05969 0.09252 0.15353 0.25786 0.42436 0.63873

0.00131 0.00015 0.00016 0.00035 0.00043 0.00046 0.00057 0.00074 0.00115 0.00189 0.00302 0.00492 0.00794 0.01228 0.01934 0.03308 0.05880 0.10729 0.19426

0.99874 0.99930 0.99874 0.99802 0.99781 0.99747 0.99675 0.99543 0.99254 0.98801 0.98076 0.96885 0.95127 0.92566 0.88039 0.79988 0.66934 0.47854 0.28640

0.99105 0.99907 0.99906 0.99759 0.99681 0.99596 0.99416 0.99219 0.98778 0.97687 0.96002 0.93702 0.89892 0.84657 0.79856 0.74231 0.62813 0.45035 0.27009

0.00895 0.00093 0.00094 0.00241 0.00319 0.00404 0.00584 0.00781 0.01222 0.02313 0.03998 0.06298 0.10108 0.15343 0.20144 0.25769 0.37187 0.54965 0.72991

72

New Zealand Life Tables, 2000–2002 Table A3.2

Life Table Mortality and Survivorship Rates By five-year age group Total, Mäori and non-Mäori populations, 1995–1997

Exact Age (years)

x

Total Population Mäori Population Non-Mäori Population Probability that a Proportion of Probability that a Proportion of Probability that a Proportion of Person who Central Age Group Person who Central Age Group Person who Central Age Group Reaches this Age: Annual x to x+5 Reaches this Age: Annual x to x+5 Reaches this Age: Annual x to x+5 Lives Dies Death who Will Lives Dies Death who Will Lives Dies Death who Will Another within Rate for Survive Another within Rate for Survive Another within Rate for Survive Five Five Age Group Another Five Five Age Group Another Five Five Age Group Another Years Years x to x+5 Five Years Years Years x to x+5 Five Years Years Years x to x+5 Five Years 5px 5qx 5mx 5sx 5px 5qx 5mx 5sx 5px 5qx 5mx 5sx Male

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

0.99103 0.99896 0.99874 0.99418 0.99224 0.99302 0.99341 0.99291 0.99062 0.98492 0.97403 0.95619 0.92821 0.88490 0.82005 0.72684 0.59211 0.42029 0.24837

0.00897 0.00104 0.00126 0.00582 0.00776 0.00698 0.00659 0.00709 0.00938 0.01508 0.02597 0.04381 0.07179 0.11510 0.17995 0.27316 0.40789 0.57971 0.75163

0.00181 0.00021 0.00025 0.00117 0.00156 0.00140 0.00132 0.00142 0.00188 0.00304 0.00526 0.00894 0.01485 0.02434 0.03937 0.06303 0.10251 0.16718 0.26423

0.99819 0.99903 0.99683 0.99266 0.99263 0.99326 0.99326 0.99198 0.98811 0.97997 0.96579 0.94332 0.90829 0.85522 0.77763 0.66728 0.51603 0.34477 0.19673

0.98668 0.99872 0.99775 0.99091 0.98834 0.98802 0.98672 0.98611 0.98086 0.96261 0.93541 0.90173 0.84257 0.76520 0.71609 0.63219 0.44456 0.26918 0.13282

0.01332 0.00128 0.00225 0.00909 0.01166 0.01198 0.01328 0.01389 0.01914 0.03739 0.06459 0.09827 0.15743 0.23480 0.28391 0.36781 0.55544 0.73082 0.86718

0.00269 0.00026 0.00045 0.00183 0.00235 0.00241 0.00267 0.00280 0.00386 0.00761 0.01332 0.02061 0.03401 0.05312 0.06650 0.08992 0.15663 0.24922 0.37514

0.99738 0.99865 0.99448 0.98915 0.98825 0.98738 0.98641 0.98429 0.97285 0.94943 0.91987 0.87543 0.80454 0.73909 0.68607 0.54809 0.36762 0.21220 0.10181

0.99271 0.99903 0.99904 0.99499 0.99317 0.99403 0.99446 0.99405 0.99200 0.98713 0.97790 0.96214 0.93587 0.89227 0.82501 0.72958 0.59548 0.42268 0.24960

0.00729 0.00097 0.00096 0.00501 0.00683 0.00597 0.00554 0.00595 0.00800 0.01287 0.02210 0.03786 0.06413 0.10773 0.17499 0.27042 0.40452 0.57732 0.75040

0.00147 0.00019 0.00019 0.00100 0.00137 0.00120 0.00111 0.00119 0.00161 0.00259 0.00446 0.00771 0.01322 0.02269 0.03817 0.06228 0.10143 0.16609 0.26329

0.99850 0.99916 0.99741 0.99354 0.99361 0.99430 0.99434 0.99320 0.98984 0.98296 0.97068 0.95020 0.91598 0.86145 0.78132 0.67015 0.51900 0.34657 0.19757

0.00241 0.00021 0.00036 0.00079 0.00089 0.00097 0.00130 0.00184 0.00305 0.00558 0.00933 0.01451 0.02342 0.03702 0.05253 0.07099 0.10085 0.16456 0.26595

0.99780 0.99879 0.99704 0.99570 0.99544 0.99444 0.99230 0.98826 0.97923 0.96380 0.94301 0.91140 0.86107 0.79978 0.73623 0.65612 0.52449 0.34630 0.18851

0.99385 0.99932 0.99912 0.99784 0.99763 0.99783 0.99748 0.99656 0.99474 0.99091 0.98429 0.97528 0.96211 0.93900 0.89849 0.83136 0.71470 0.54359 0.34760

0.00615 0.00068 0.00088 0.00216 0.00237 0.00217 0.00252 0.00344 0.00526 0.00909 0.01571 0.02472 0.03789 0.06100 0.10151 0.16864 0.28530 0.45641 0.65240

0.00124 0.00014 0.00018 0.00043 0.00048 0.00043 0.00050 0.00069 0.00105 0.00183 0.00316 0.00500 0.00771 0.01256 0.02131 0.03664 0.06605 0.11845 0.20171

0.99888 0.99933 0.99848 0.99764 0.99775 0.99771 0.99706 0.99577 0.99304 0.98782 0.97998 0.96926 0.95169 0.92073 0.86817 0.78016 0.63751 0.45631 0.27671

Female 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

0.99228 0.99921 0.99896 0.99747 0.99715 0.99738 0.99691 0.99572 0.99352 0.98909 0.98157 0.97091 0.95576 0.93212 0.89291 0.82684 0.71204 0.54203 0.34675

0.00772 0.00079 0.00104 0.00253 0.00285 0.00262 0.00309 0.00428 0.00648 0.01091 0.01843 0.02909 0.04424 0.06788 0.10709 0.17316 0.28796 0.45797 0.65325

0.00155 0.00016 0.00021 0.00051 0.00057 0.00052 0.00062 0.00086 0.00130 0.00219 0.00372 0.00590 0.00904 0.01402 0.02255 0.03772 0.06679 0.11902 0.20218

0.99861 0.99922 0.99820 0.99720 0.99729 0.99721 0.99638 0.99474 0.99153 0.98560 0.97652 0.96387 0.94491 0.91445 0.86322 0.77646 0.63553 0.45514 0.27606

0.98809 0.99893 0.99818 0.99605 0.99557 0.99516 0.99354 0.99083 0.98486 0.97246 0.95433 0.92984 0.88900 0.83006 0.76765 0.69886 0.59835 0.42552 0.24442

0.01191 0.00107 0.00182 0.00395 0.00443 0.00484 0.00646 0.00917 0.01514 0.02754 0.04567 0.07016 0.11100 0.16994 0.23235 0.30114 0.40165 0.57448 0.75558

73

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