Partnership for America's Partnership for America's Economic

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Massachusetts Strategies for Children campaign business leaders: Mara Aspinall, ... The Davis Foundation in western Massachusetts organized groups of ...

Partnership for America’s Economic Success M ki Young Making Y Children Child the th Top Tp Economic Priority of the Nation Milken Institute, February 28, 2008 Sara Watson Senior Officer, Officer The Pew Charitable Trusts Director, Partnership for America’s Economic Success [email protected] Robert Dugger Advisory Board Chair, Partnership for America’s Economic Success [email protected]

Partnership for America’s Economic Success

The Need ƒ Intensifying global competition and steadily growing fiscal imbalances are important American challenges. ƒ Twenty percent of workers are functionally illiterate; we need children to become adults who are literate, numerate, jobready, team-capable. ƒ Many of the traits that make good employees, neighbors and citizens begin in the first five years of life. life ƒ Great success with the economic case for prekindergarten – how much better off will we be with investments in proven strategies prenatal to five? Hard numbers + new messengers = sharp elbows in the budget battles

Partnership for America’s Economic Success

Background d ƒ Established in 2006 by a collaboration of 12 funders, business leaders economists and early childhood experts leaders, experts. ƒ Robert Dugger of Tudor Investment Corporation is co-founder and Advisory Board Chair. ƒ Managed by and housed at The Pew Charitable Trusts. ƒ Purpose: Make all children’s successful development the top economic i priority i i for f the h nation. i ƒ Strategy: Strengthen U.S. competitiveness and achieve fiscal g evidence-based investments in yyoungg sustainabilityy through children prenatal to age five.

Partnership for America’s Economic Success

Three Phases

Partnership Advisory Board ƒ Robert Dugger, Tudor Investment ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Corporation, Chair Lynson Beaulieu, Schott Foundation for Public Education Marcia Egbert, George Gund Foundation Deborah Harris, Pal-Tech, Inc. H idi H Heidi Hartmann, IInstitute i ffor W Women’s ’ Policy Research Ron Haskins, Brookings Institution JJames Heckman, Universityy of Chicago g Paul Hirschbiel, Eden Capital Stuart Hoffman, PNC Financial Services Group Ch l K Charles Kolb, lb C Committee i ffor E Economic i Development Milton Little, United Way of Atlanta

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Barbara Miller, Ohio Children’s Foundation Roy Miller, Children's Campaign George Overholser, Capital One Lynda Parmely, Parmely Horace Hagedorn Foundation Dan Pedersen, Buffett Early Childhood Fund Arthur Rolnick, Minneapolis Federal Reserve Bank Ada Sanchez, Peppercorn Foundation Ann Segal, Wellspring Advisors Ana Sejeck, Early Childhood Initiative Foundation Jack Shonkoff, Harvard University Eugene Steuerle, Urban Institute Louise Stoney, y Alliance for Earlyy Childhood Finance Sara Watson, The Pew Charitable Trusts Michael Weinstein, Robin Hood Foundation

Rationale and Caveats ƒ Many reasons to invest other than economics ƒ Individual examples p don’t add up p to a “recipe” p – use data p points to illustrate the larger picture of children’s development as essential to economic future ƒ Gives children’s advocates evidence and language not often had before (impact on GDP) ƒ Gives Gi business b i leaders l d naturall talking lki points i ƒ Get out of box of pitting one children’s program against another – instead compare to other expenditures expected to improve the economy

Research Agenda: Five Areas of Focus 1 Mi 1. Microeconomics i – Economic E i gains i ffrom specific ifi interventions i i Health Parenting Housing Early education Parental income Nutrition 2. Macroeconomics – Economic growth, job creation, fiscal sustainability, and global competitiveness implications of proven investments 3 Sector Analysis – Size of the “youth 3. youth human capital development development” sector 4. Finance Policy – Best ways to pay for proven investments commensurate with economic i iimpact 5. Communications – How to communicate findings and inform policy discussion

Research Results: A Children’s Budget

Urban Institute/New America Foundation (Gene Steuerle) ƒ Federal investments in children are projected to decline by 14 to 29 percent as a portion of federal spending over the next d d decade ƒ Federal spending p g will rise byy $650 billion,, but investments in children will see only .01 percent of this increase ƒ Federal focus on consumption rather than investment programs jeopardizes our economic growth

Research Results: A Children’s Budget Federal Investments in Children: Education, Parental Work Supports, and Social Supports, 1965-2006, and Projections to 2017


Earned Income Tax Credit



Perrcen tage o f d omestic spend ing

Education and research + work supports + social supports


8 0% 8.0%

Education and research + work supports 6.0%



Education and research

0.0% 1965




Education of All Handicapped Children Act

Elementary & Secondary Education Act

S ource: C. Eugene









Child Care Entitlement to States Program

Child Care & Development Block Grant Program

Steuerle, Adam Carasso, and Gillian Reynolds, The Urban Institute, 2007. Based on data from Federal Budget: Analytical Perspectives, various years; Appendix, various years; Historical Tables, various years; Health Care Financing Review 2005.



Research Results: Early Childhood Health Conditions

Johns Hopkins University (Bernard Guyer) ƒ Unintentional injuries, obesity, mental health disorders, and exposure to smoke in utero and during childhood are major causes of early childhood health problems: ƒ Each year, one child in six suffers a serious injury, one in seven preschoolers is obese; as many as one in five has a mental health disorder, and nearly half a million babies are born each year to mothers who smoked while pregnant pregnant.

ƒ They cost society substantial amounts of money: ƒ 15% of all medical costs are allocated to injury-related care ƒ Obesity-related hospital costs for kids 6-17 years old nearly quadrupled between 1979 ($44 million) and 1999 ($160 million) ƒ Extra prenatal care for pregnant smokers costs $4 billion/year

ƒ Multi-faceted smokingg cessation and public p safetyy programs p g can substantially reduce long-term health-related costs, with benefit-cost ratios as high as 12:1.

Health Issues in the News

High Price of Diabetes: $116 B in Medical Costs and $58 B in Lost Productivity

Research Results: Closing the Poverty Gap

N h Northwestern University U i i (G (Greg D Duncan)* )* ƒ Early childhood poverty is associated with a range of adverse adult outcomes. outcomes Relative to their poor peers, peers children living at twice the federal poverty level: ƒ Complete two more years of school; ƒ As adults,, earn twice as much;; ƒ Report better physical and mental health.

ƒ Raising all poor U.S. children to the poverty line would almost pay for itself in adult earnings alone: ƒ Cost: $70,000 ƒ Benefits: ¾ Sharply p y increase adult earnings g ($53,000-$99,000 ( per child)) p ¾ Decrease welfare dependence ($3,200 lifetime TANF, food stamps) ¾ Slightly increase schooling (0.2 years)

Research Results: Closing the Poverty Gap Early Adult Attainments, Public Support Receipt, Health, and Behavior, by Poverty Status, between the Prenatal Year and Age 5 60 Below poverty

Mean or Percent M


1-2 times poverty

Over 2 times poverty

40 30 20 10 0 Years of



(in 1000

Work hours Food stamps AFDC/TANF Poor health (in 100

(in 100






Ever arrested

(in 100







Non-marital Non marital

incarcerated birth prior to (males)

age 21 (females)

Research Results: Economic Impact of Early Childhood Programs

U j h IInstitute Upjohn i (Ti (Tim Bartik)* B ik)* ƒ Examined jjob ggrowth impacts p of proven p p programs: g Abecedarian,, Nurse Family Partnership, pre-kindergarten for all ƒ Each state dollar invested in such p programs g will increase the present p value of state residents’ earnings by 2-5 times ƒ Per dollar spent, all three early childhood interventions create more jobs in the long-run than business subsidies

Research Results: Economic Impact of Early Childhood Programs

Research Results: The Fiscal Effects of Early Childhood Investments

U i University i off M Maryland l d (Willi (William Di Dickens)* k )* ƒ Investments in early childhood programs – Abecedarian as an example l – increase i GDP GD by b over 1% % iin the h llong run. ƒ Economic benefits include increased savings and physical capital p investments, education, health, and human capital p increases, greater tax revenues, and savings on crime and other ills. ƒ Combining federal, federal state, state and local revenue boosts and cost savings, both programs pay for themselves in the very long term (120-141 years) ƒ Only economic and fiscal benefits are considered. considered If social benefits, which are more immediate and likely greater, were included, the net return would be larger.

Research Results: Closing the Poverty Gap Growth Effects of Full-Scale Abecedarian Program (% Increase Relative to Baseline)

2.00% 1.50% 1 00% 1.00% 0.50% 0.00%


Physical Capital

Human Capital













Timing of Economic Returns IImmediate: di S Support wide id range off jobs j b in i the h U U.S., S h help l parents stay iin the labor force, improve birth outcomes/reduce costs Short-term (1-3 Sh (1 3 years): ) Decrease D child hild injury i j andd mortality, li maltreatment, better spacing between pregnancies, fewer subsequent pregnancies Medium-term (4-14 years): Improve special education placement, grade repetition, criminal involvement, maternal education, state budgets g ((15+ years): y ) Increase high g school graduation g and Long-term college attendance, reduce use of welfare services, contribute to GDP and job growth, earnings, home ownership

Using the Message in Seattle, Illinois, Minnesota

The Message is Getting Out

The Message is Getting Out It's a mystery. With all the energy devoted to expanding prekindergarten programs, leaving no K-12 child behind, improving community colleges and sweetening aid for college students, how can the U.S be short of educated workers? Despite frequent assertions by advocates for one solution or another, there is no one sure cure for this. If only we got more kids into high-quality pre-K, it wouldn'tt be enough wouldn enough. If only we improved K-12 education, it wouldn't be enough. If only we got more teenagers to finish high school, it wouldn't be enough…We have to do them all. all “Lack of Well-Educated Workers Has Lots of Roots, No Quick Fix,” David Wessel, The Wall Street Journal

Business leaders in South Dakota are taking an interesting approach to economic development. They're using i money sett aside id for f recruiting iti new businesses and investing it in preschool education. Studies show that everyy dollar spent p on early y education saves seven dollars down the road, on potential welfare and incarceration costs. “South Dakota makes preschool a form of economic development” Cara Hetland,, Minnesota Public Radio

Business Leader Support ƒ Jim Rohr, CEO of PNC Bank, leading $100 million PNC Grow Up Great ƒ George Kaiser, CEO of Kaiser-Francis Oil, major supporter of early care and education in Oklahoma ƒ Ed Basha, CEO of Basha’s Grocery Stores, led fight in Arizona for early childhood ballot initiative ƒ Massachusetts Massach setts Strategies for Children campaign b business siness leaders: leaders Mara Aspinall, Aspinall CEO of Genzyme Genetics; Ronald Sargeant, CEO of Staples; James Brett, CEO of The New England Council; Richard Lord, CEO of Associated Industries of Massachusetts ƒ CEO’s of Federal Reserve Banks in Richmond, Cleveland and San Francisco made statements in support of early investments as economic development ƒ Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke – “Recent Recent research… research has documented the high returns that early childhood programs can pay”

The Importance of the Message

Although education and the acquisition of skills is a lifelong process, starting early in life is crucial. R Recent research--some h sponsored db by the h F Federal d l Reserve Bank of Minneapolis in collaboration with the University of Minnesota--has documented the high returns that early childhood programs can pay in terms of subsequent q educational attainment and in lower rates of social problems, such as teenage pregnancy and welfare dependency. Federal Reserve Chairman Ben S. Bernanke, speech to the Omaha Chamber of Commerce

Partnering with State and Local Groups ƒ Wisconsin Department of Workforce Development became the first state “chapter” of PAES, the Partnership for Wisconsin Economic Success ƒ PAES presented at University of Miami Forum on Economic and Social Costs of Inadequate Education ƒ The Davis Foundation in western Massachusetts organized groups of business leaders to come to our meetings, and then held similar follow-up events using PAES ddata t and d speakers k tto further f th its it Cherish Ch i h E Every Child campaign i • Discussions with Kiwanis International, Corporate Voices for Working Families to present to their members

Dissemination and Communication Activities PAES/Invest in Kids Monthly Discussion Forums • •

New findings, leaders, messages, campaigns Toll-free call-in number or join in person in DC; sign up on PAES website

West Coast Economic Forum on Early Childhood Investment ƒ ƒ

Feb 28th, with the Milken Institute, in Santa Monica, California Speakers include President of Kiwanis International, CEO of United Healthcare, Lt. Gov. of CO

Fourth Annual PAES Conference ƒ ƒ

July 9-10, 2008 in Washington, DC p Showcase state and local initiatives;; new research;; and hands-on consultations to address specific issues and challenges in furthering the invest in kids policy agenda

Second Annual Telluride Economic Summit ƒ ƒ

September 21 21-23, 23, with the Telluride Foundation, in Telluride, Colorado By invitation only; senior business executives

Fifth Annual PAES Conference and Culminating Report, spring 2009

Disseminating Partnership Findings Across the U.S.

Work With Us

The nation needs a million voices – join us ƒ Sign up to receive monthly PAES updates, including notices of PAES/Invest in Kids monthly forums at p g ƒ Participate in monthly forums, upcoming conferences ƒ Ask us for research findings ƒ Help H l us secure b business i lleaders d to di disseminate i this hi message to policy audiences, the public, the business community, and others ƒ Link to PAES website and send us items to be posted

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