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have dropped two cannon balls off the Leaning Tower of Pisa. He found that ... Newton and Galileo used the scientific method to discover the laws of motion.

Cover design: David Keller Opening page: David Keller Illustrations: Janet Moneymaker, Rebecca W. Keller, PhD Copyright © 2013 Gravitas Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission. Focus On Middle School Physics Student Textbook (softcover) ISBN: 978-1-936114-65-8 Published by Gravitas Publications, Inc. www.gravitaspublications.com Printed in United States Explanation of graphic on title page: Energy and a Bouncing Ball—At the top of each bounce, the ball has only potential energy and no kinetic energy. As it falls, it loses potential energy and gains speed until, just before it hits, it has only kinetic energy and no potential energy. However, each time the ball hits the ground, it loses some energy as sound and heat, so each bounce becomes lower than the one before. Special thanks to Susan Searles for copyediting and review of the manuscript. Also, I’d like to thank the Keller kids (Kimberly, Chris, and Katy), the Chesebrough kids (Sam and Ben), and the Megill kids (Lorien, Lee, Joshua, and Joseph) for critical evaluation of the text. Finally, I’d like to thank Liam McLean for valuable input.

Contents CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS PHYSICS? 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Introduction The Basic Laws of Physics How We Get Laws The Scientific Method Summary

CHAPTER 2: FORCE, ENERGY, AND WORK 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

Introduction Force Balanced Forces Unbalanced Forces Work Energy Summary

1

2 2 3 4 7 8

9 9 10 11 12 13 14

CHAPTER 3: POTENTIAL AND KINETIC ENERGY

15

CHAPTER 4: MOTION

23

CHAPTER 5: ENERGY OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES

29

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

Potential Energy A Note About Units Types of Potential Energy Energy Is Converted Kinetic Energy Kinetic Energy and Work Summary

4.1 Motion 4.2 Inertia 4.3 Mass 4.4 Friction 4.5 Momentum 4.6 Summary

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Chemical Energy Stored Chemical Energy Stored Chemical Energy in Food Stored Chemical Energy in Batteries Nuclear Energy Summary

16 17 18 19 19 20 22

24 25 26 26 27 28

30 31 31 32 32 34

CHAPTER 6: ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND CHARGE

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CHAPTER 7: MOVING ELECTRIC CHARGES AND HEAT

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CHAPTER 8: MAGNETS AND ELECTROMAGNETS

45

CHAPTER 9: LIGHT AND SOUND

52

CHAPTER 10: CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

59

Glossary — Index

66

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5

9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5

Electrical Energy Electric Charge Charging Objects Electrical Force Summary

Moving Electric Charges Resistance Heat Summary

Magnets Magnetic Fields Electromagnets Electromagnetic Induction Summary

Light Waves Visible Light Sound Waves Summary

10.1 Introduction 10.2 Energy Is Conserved 10.3 Usable Energy 10.4 Energy Sources 10.5 Summary

36 37 38 38 39

41 42 43 44

46 48 49 50 51

53 53 56 57 58

60 60 62 62 65

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FOCUS ON MIDDLE SCHOOL PHYSICS

1.1 Introduction Have you ever wondered what makes a feather float but a boulder fall, or why a bird can fly but a whale cannot? Have you ever noticed that when your mom quickly puts on the brakes, the car stops, but your ice cream ends up on the dashboard? Have you ever wondered why, when you slide your stocking feet on the carpet, you can “shock” your dad? All of these observations, and others like them, begin the inquiry into the field of science called physics. The name physics comes from the Greek word physika, which means “physical or natural.” Physics investigates the most basic laws that govern the physical or natural world.

1.2 The Basic Laws of Physics What is a basic law of physics? Are the laws of physics like the laws that tell us not to speed or not to steal? No. In fact, physical laws are statements that tell us about how the physical world around us works. Using these laws, we can understand why baseballs go up and then come down, why airplanes can fly, why rockets can land on the moon, and why we see rainbows after it rains. Physical laws are never broken, unlike laws that tell us not to speed or not to steal. For example, Newton’s law of gravity tells us why we stay firmly on the surface of the earth and do not sometimes just fly off. People have always known that the world behaves in regular and reliable ways. For example, people have observed for centuries that the Sun always rises and sets, that water always flows downhill, or that, if it is cold enough, water will turn into ice. The laws of physics are statements about these regular and reliable observations.

CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS PHYSICS?

We know that objects such as baseballs, airplanes, and people consistently obey the laws of physics and don’t suddenly break one or two. It would be kind of hard to play baseball if every once in a while the ball hit by the batter landed on the Moon.

1.3 How We Get Laws How do we know what these laws are, and how did we discover them? Did the Earth come with a big instruction book that spelled out all of the laws? Not exactly. People had to figure them out on their own. Scientists use scientific investigation to discover how the world works. We will learn more about scientific investigation, including the scientific method, in the next section. One early scientist who used scientific investigation and helped develop the scientific method was Galileo Galilei (ga-lǝ-lā’-ō gal-ǝ-lā’). Galileo was an Italian astronomer born in Pisa, Italy in 1564. He showed how two lead balls fall at the same rate even if one is larger than the other. He performed a famous experiment where he is said to have dropped two cannon balls off the Leaning Tower of Pisa. He found that, even though the two cannon balls were different weights, they landed on the ground at exactly the same time!

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FOCUS ON MIDDLE SCHOOL PHYSICS

People still had trouble believing him, and it wasn’t until Isaac Newton showed mathematically why this was true that it was finally accepted. Isaac Newton is considered to be one of the greatest scientists of all time. He is also considered the founder of physics as we know it today. He was born in 1643 in England. He was a brilliant man who figured out many laws about how objects move. He was a great mathematician and wrote mathematical equations to describe these laws. One law that Newton discovered is the law of gravity. Newton confirmed Galileo’s experiments and showed with mathematics just why two objects will reach the ground at the same time, even if one is heavier than the other. Physical laws are often described using mathematics. The precision of mathematics is one reason physics is so powerful.

1.4 The Scientific Method Newton and Galileo used the scientific method to discover the laws of motion. The scientific method is a way of gathering information and drawing conclusions based on that information. Scientists have used this method to make many discoveries. There are essentially five steps in the scientific method. The first step is observation. A scientist, like Newton, observes how things behave and may look for patterns or things that are similar from day to day.

CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS PHYSICS?

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For example, you may notice that each time it snows, people in big trucks spread salt on the roads. You may also notice that cars have less trouble on these salted roads than on roads without salt. These are observations. From these observations, you might think of a general statement that tells something about what you have observed. This is the second step in the scientific method and is called forming a hypothesis (hī-pä’-thǝsǝs). A hypothesis is really just a guess. It is something that you think might be true about your observations but that hasn’t been proven. For example, you might make the following statements about why salt is put on roads: “The salt melts the ice on the road.” “The salt makes rubber tires sticky.” “The salt makes the snow stop falling.” All of these statements are hypotheses (hī-pä’thǝ-sēz). That is, they are hypothetical (hī-pǝthe’-ti-kǝl), meaning they haven’t been proven. The third step is to test your hypothesis by using experimentation. By designing an experiment to test your hypothesis, you can find out if your hypothesis is correct.

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For example, you may decide to test your hypothesis that “salt makes rubber tires sticky” with an experiment. You might take two pieces of rubber and add salt to one and not to the other. The one you don’t add salt to would be a control. A control tells you what you would expect without salt so that you can tell if the salt makes any difference. Next, you would compare the two pieces of rubber to see if the one with salt is stickier than the one without salt. This brings you to the fourth step in the scientific method, collecting results. As a scientist, you should always record the results of your experiment exactly as you see them. If the salty rubber is “stickier” than the regular rubber, then you should record that. If the rubber is not stickier with salt, then that is what must be recorded. At this point, you should not let what you think might happen affect how you record your results. This is very important. Also, everything you observe should be written down. Even your mistakes should be recorded. Finally, the last step of the scientific method is to draw conclusions based on what your results show. Here again, your conclusions should be based only on your results and should not be influenced by what you think should have happened. For example, if the salt did not make the rubber stickier, then a conclusion might be: Conclusion:

“Based on my data, the salt did not make the rubber more sticky.”

CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS PHYSICS?

Based on this one experiment, you cannot say why the salt helps the cars drive more easily. You would have to conduct more experiments. But you have been able to eliminate at least one hypothesis using the scientific method. Showing which hypotheses are NOT true is often just as important as showing which one is true.

1.5 Summary Here are the main points to remember from this chapter:

• Physics is the study of how things move and behave in nature. • The laws of physics are precise statements about how things behave. • The laws of physics were determined using the scientific method. • The five steps of the scientific method are as follows:

1. Observation 2. Forming a hypothesis 3. Experimentation 4. Collecting results 5. Drawing conclusions

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